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Kansas State Board of Agriculture
First Biennial Report

Franklin County


Map of Franklin County - 1878

First settlements: Centropolis, Peoria, Pottawatomie, Franklin, Hayes, Cutler and Ohio townships, in 1854; Appanoose, Richmond and Williamsburg townships, in 1855; Greenwood, in 1860; Ottawa and Harrison, in 1862. - First church buildings erected: Centropolis township, at Centropolis, 1857, Methodist; Peoria township, at Peoria, 1860, Methodist; Franklin township, at Wellsville, 1871, Congregational; Richmond township, at Berea, 1860, United Presbyterian, Ottawa township, at Ottawa, 1864, Baptist; Greenwood township, at Greenwood, 1874, Methodist. - First post office: St. Bernard, located at Minneola, 1856, J. M. Bernard, postmaster.

Franklin county was organized in 1855.

Population in 1860, 3,030; in 1870, 10,385; increase in ten years, 7,355; population in 1875, 10,108; decrease in five years, 277; population in 1878, 12,381; increase in eighteen years, 9,351. Rural population, 8,295; city or town population, 4,086; per cent. of rural to city or town population, 67.

POPULATION of 1878, by Townships and Cities.

POPULATION of 1878, by Townships and Cities.
Appanoose 775 Centropolis 759 Cutler 721
Franklin 665 Greenwood 501 Harrison 621
Hayes 586 Lincoln 506 Ottawa City 3,055
Ottawa 745 Ohio 497 Peoria 911
Pottawatomie 538 Richmond 401 Williamsburg 1,100

Face of the Country. - Bottom land, 17 per cent.; upland 83 per cent.; forest, (Government survey) 8 per cent.; prairie, 92 per cent. Average width of Marais des Cygnes bottom, two miles; general surface of the country, undulating.

Timber. - Average width of timber belts - on the Marais des Cygnes, one mile; other creeks, one-quarter mile. Varieties: hickory, walnut, oak, elm, cottonwood, hackberry, mulberry and willow.

Principal Streams. - The Marais des Cygnes runs from west to east through the county; Middle creek, a tributary of the foregoing, runs northeast; Ottawa creek, southeast; Pottawatomie, northeast; Mud creek, north; Coal creek, north; Appanoose, southeast; Hickory, Turkey and Walnut, southwest. The county is well supplied with springs; good well water obtained at from 18 to 40 feet.

Coal. - Coal underlies 20 per cent. of the area of the county. Average thickness, 2 feet; depth ranges from surface to 20 feet; quality good; used extensively for fuel and for local manufacturing purposes. About 75,000 bushels are reported to have been mined during the last year.

Building Stone, etc. - There is plenty of good lime and sandstone, well distributed. In Pottawatomie and Peoria townships a species of granite has been discovered suitable for monuments. In January, 1878, Hon. James Hanway, of Lane, forwarded to the Agricultural Museum, a very handsome specimen of this granite limestone - a block some eight and one-half inches square, and five inches in thickness, showing different styles of finish and polish, with a group of fruit chiseled out on the upper side. In the course of his letter of transmittal, Mr. Hanway says:

"We have lately discovered a beautiful specimen of limestone, and believing it to be an article worthy of mention as a Kansas production, we send to the State Board of Agriculture a specimen for inspection. It is found on the quarter section that I pre-empted in 1856, viz: northeast quarter, Section 5, Township 19, Range 21, east, in Pottawatomie township, one and a half miles from Lane post office. It is about one hundred and twenty feet high from Pottawatomie creek, the bluff being almost perpendicular. Three layers of limestone, averaging ten inches in thickness, are above it. The second layer of limestone contains numerous fossils in large quantities. By the aid of a microscope, you will perceive an innumerable number of small shells in the specimen sent, which will afford a pleasing study to those interested in geological researches.

"It is the coraline marble of the geologists, which has attracted so much attention in the Derbyshire quarries of England and elsewhere, and is capable of receiving even a higher polish than the well known Vermont marble, and its specific gravity is greater. There is no doubt of its being introduced for cemetery purposes. I may add that for the past fourteen years this coraline marble has been used for corner stones for building purposes. It stands the action of the weather, as can readily be seen. It is only a few months since an attempt was made to polish it, hence the value of this stone has been a secret to all."

Railroad Connections. - The Leavenworth, Lawrence & Galveston Railroad traverses the centre of the county from north to south, with a line operated by the same company running northeast from Ottawa to Kansas City. Principal station and junction, Ottawa. The Kansas City, Burlington & Santa Fe road runs from Ottawa in a southwesterly direction through the county to Burlington, in Coffey county.

Agricultural Statistics. - Acres in the county, 368,640; taxable acres, 350,770; under cultivation, 124,322.03; cultivated to taxable acres, 35.44 per cent.; increase of cultivated acres during the year, 7,861.78.

STATEMENT showing the Acreage of Field Crops named from 1872 to 1878, inclusive.

CROPS. 1872. 1873. 1874. 1875. 1876. 1877. 1878.
Winter Wheat 5,218.00 5,218.00 5,827.00 1,431.25 1,802.00 2,268.00 5,133.00
Rye 184.00 503.00 215.00 123.25 312.00 192.00 441.00
Spring Wheat 75.00 584.00 194.00 11.25 23.00 41.00 77.00
Corn 34,048.00 33,163.00 25,184.00 52,483.88 46,018.00 51,923.00 55,835.00
Barley ----- 359.00 885.00 8.00 10.00 17.00 60.00
Oats 7,586.00 7,635.00 6,486.00 4,479.60 5,297.00 3,020.00 6,246.00
Buckwheat 273.00 285.00 96.00 1,903.40 152.00 96.00 177.50
Irish Potatoes 778.00 1,359.00 729.00 1,573.12 1,154.00 967.00 879.00
Sweet Potatoes 14.00 12.00 16.00 19.16 26.50 46.00 20.38
Sorghum 158.00 204.00 364.00 504.78 38.87 284.00 320.63
Castor Beans 339.00 1,106.00 172.30 4,261.25 4,470.00 9,734.00 6,357.00
Cotton ----- 35.00 157.00 41.24 30.50 ----- -----
Flax ----- 322.00 817.00 4,980.60 5,053.50 766.00 289.00
Hemp ----- 22.00 74.00 ----- 44.50 13.50 -----
Tobacco 5.00 3.00 8.00 2.50 29.62 9.75 8.26
Broom Corn ----- ----- 21.00 173.50 79.00 185.00 31.51
Millet and Hungarian 638.00 1,687.00 2,156.00 2,242.30 2,701.00 2,125.00 1,701.00
Timothy Meadow 2,223.00 1,523.00 1,523.00 1,492.35 1,273.00 1,864.00 1,878.75
Clover Meadow 533.00 533.00 358.00 258.25 147.50 362.00 260.00
Prairie Meadow 14,312.00 7,817.00 10,623.00 28,326.50 22,404.00 25,691.00 26,623.00
Timothy Pasture 77.00 65.00 106.00 250.50 108.00 32.00 198.00
Clover Pasture 52.00 52.00 40.00 58.50 3.00 64.00 13.25
Blue-Grass Pasture 151.00 151.00 1,307.00 301.06 132.50 729.00 446.75
Prairie Pasture 13,179.00 11,210.00 6,534.00 18,694.00 11,275.00 16,031.00 17,326.00

Total 79,843.00 73,848.00 63,892.30 123,620.24 102,584.49 116,460.25 124,322.03

Increase in six years, 56 - per cent. Average increase per annum, 9.33 - per cent.

RANK of Franklin County in the Crops named below, as to Acreage, and in Cultivated Acreage for the years mentioned in the foregoing table.

CROPS. 1872. 1873. 1874. 1875. 1876. 1877. 1878.

Wheat 24 25 45 57 58 59 61
Corn 12 15 27 11 16 19 12

Total Acreage in all Crops 15 15 26 11 18 20 24

STATEMENT showing the Acres, Product and Value of Principal Crops for 1878, together with the Increase and Decrease as compared with 1877.

FROM 1877.
IN 1878.
FROM 1877.
IN 1878.
FROM 1877.

Winter Wheat - bu. 5,133.00 2,865.00 in. 97,527.00 63,507.00 in. $67,293.63 $33,273.63 in.
Rye - bu. 441.00 249.00 in. 9,702.00 5,862.00 in. 2,910.60 1,566.60 in.
Spring Wheat - bu. 77.00 36.00 in. 770.00 319.00 in. 385.00 20.90 de.
Corn - bu. 55,835.00 3,912.00 in. 2,010,060.00 66,860.00 de. 402,012.00 28,166.40 in.
Barley - bu. 60.00 43.00 in. 1,080.00 740.00 in. 378.00 259.00 in.
Oats - bu. 6,246.00 3,226.00 in. 237,348.00 131,648.00 in. 47,469.60 30,557.60 in.
Buckwheat - bu. 177.50 81.50 in. 2,130.00 882.00 in. 1,704.00 705.60 in.
Irish Potatoes - bu. 879.00 88.00 de. 76,473.00 5,882.00 in. 38,236.50 7,647.65 de.
Sweet Potatoes - bu. 20.38 25.62 de. 2,547.50 2,742.50 de. 2,547.50 3,007.00 de.
Sorghum - gall. 320.63 36.63 in. 36,872.45 4,212.45 in. 18,436.23 2,106.23 in.
Castor Beans - bu. 6,357.00 3,377.00 de. 95,355.00 31,187.00 de. 119,193.75 7,348.25 de.
Cotton - lbs. ----- ----- ----- ----- ----- -----
Flax - bu. 289.00 477.00 de 4,335.00 4,857.00 de. 4,335.00 5,316.60 de.
Hemp - lbs. ----- 13.50 de. ----- 12,420.00 de. ----- 745.20 de.
Tobacco - lbs. 8.26 1.49 de. 6,112.40 1,102.60 de. 611.24 110.26 de.
Broom Corn - lbs. 31.51 153.49 de. 25,208.00 122,792.00 de. 945.30 4,604.70 de.
Millet and Hungarian - tons 1,701.00 424.00 de. 5,103.00 209.50 de. 20,412.00 838.00 de.
Timothy Meadow - tons 1,878.75 14.75 in. 2,818.12 22.12 in. 14,090.60 110.60 in.
Clover Meadow - tons 260.00 102.00 de. 520.00 204.00 de. 2,600.00 1,020.00 de.
Prairie Meadow - tons 26,623.00 932.00 in. 39,935.00 1,398.50 in. 129,788.75 4,545.12 in.
Timothy Pasture acres 198.00 166.00 in. ----- ----- ----- -----
Clover Pasture - acres 13.25 50.75 de. ----- ----- ----- -----
Blue-Grass Pasture - acres 446.75 282.25 de. ----- ----- ----- -----
Prairie Pasture - acres 17,326.00 1,295.00 in. ----- ----- ----- -----

Total 124,322.03 7,861.78 in. ----- ----- $873,349.70 $70,632.22 in.

A GOOD YIELD. - Statement by William Bateman, Peoria:

Corn. - Yellow Dent variety. D. C. McCormick, living near Peoria, raised ten acres of corn in 1877, on Section 4, Township 17, range 21, that averaged 105 bushels to the acre. It was bottom land, and was planted in April, three feet six inches apart, and plowed four times; five stalks in a hill. The ground and crop were measured. Mr. McCormick says he has a crop on the same ground this year that will turn out better than the one mentioned above.

A VERY LARGE YIELD. - Statement by William Bateman, Peoria:

Castor Beans. - Mr. John Casey raised on Section 12, Township 17, Range 20, a crop of castor beans of 20 acres that averaged 23 1/2 bushels per acre. Mr. Casey says it cost no more to raise this crop than a crop of corn. He realized $29.37 1/2 per acre for this crop.

Value of Garden Produce, Poultry and Eggs Sold during the Year. - Garden produce, $1,910; poultry and eggs, $7,734.

Old Corn on Hand. - Old corn on hand March 1, 1878, 404,991 bushels, or an average of 163 bushels to each family.

Dairy Products. - Number of cheese factories, 2; capital invested, $2,500. Manufactured in 1875, 4,901 lbs.; in 1878, 65,528 lbs.; increase, 60,627 lbs. Butter manufactured in 1875, 206,485 lbs.; in 1878, 287,155 lbs.; increase, 80,670 lbs.

Farm Animals. - Number of horses, in 1877, 4,852; in 1878, 5,382; increase, 530; Mules and asses, in 1877, 458; in 1878, 521; increase, 63. Milch cows in 1877, 6,111; in 1878, 6,682; increase, 571. Other cattle, in 1877, 10,858; in 1878, 13,148; increase, 2,290. Sheep, in 1877, 1,756; in 1878, 4,311; increase, 2,555. Swine, in 1877, 12,906; in 1878, 26,435; increase, 13,529.

Sheep Killed by Dogs. - Number of sheep killed by dogs, 105; value of sheep killed by dogs, $315.

Wool. - Clip of 1877, 11,138 lbs.

Value of Animals Slaughtered. - Value of animals slaughtered and sold for slaughter during the year, $201,346.81.

Horticulture. - Number of acres nurseries, 23.75. Number of trees in bearing: apple, 70,145; pear, 1,614; peach, 99,344; plum, 1,567; cherry, 20,216. Number of trees not in bearing: apple, 68,699; pear, 3,126; peach, 31,154; plum, 1,765; cherry, 10,645.

Herd Law. - The herd law is not in operation in the county, and public sentiment is generally opposed to it.

Fences. - Stone, 32,886 rods; cost, $65,772. Rail, 233,351 rods; cost, $315,023.85. Board, 49,215 rods; cost, $68,901. Wire, 15,512 rods; cost, $11,013.52. Hedge, 313,545 rods; cost, $125,418. Total rods of fence, 644,509; total cost, $586,128.37.

Apiaculture. - Number of stands of bees, 686; pounds of honey, 7,877; wax, 97.

Value of Agricultural Implements. - Amount invested in agricultural implements, $58,751.

Silk Culture. - Through the courtesy of L. S. Crozier, silk grower to the establishment of E. V. Boissiere, situated at Silkville, in this county, we are enabled to present the following statement in regard to silk culture in Kansas:

"The growing of cocoons proves quite successful in Kansas, as in many other parts of America. By quite successful I mean, first, we have got, even with diseased eggs, the largest quantity of cocoons which can be obtained for a given quantity of eggs; second, not only the first rate breeds from Japan, France, Italy, etc., keep their own quality, but they improve yet in a very notable manner; and in the third place, in the space of six or seven years we have stated that no local disease, such as muscardine, tripes, yellow disease, and others produced by atmospheric conditions, has ever affected our worms. We have had only the unavoidable hereditary disease introduced with the breeds we wanted to have, which was rapidly cured, by a severe selection of the reproductors, after the system of Pasteur, and, over all, by the healthy influence of a pure, sound atmosphere. The three above mentioned facts are proved by the circular letter of M. Ph. Boyer, a distinguished disciple of M. Pasteur, public micrographer in the City of Aubenos (Ardeche), France, saying: 'The progress made by our diseased breeds and by the Japanese, in the State of Kansas, is quite astonishing. Health quite restored; size, strength and fineness increased. Such are the results, and after mature examination we dare say, there is the spot where our degenerated breeds can be regenerated, if this be possible.' The prediction has been confirmed by the facts in 1878. More than fifty beginners in the State of Kansas having tried our yellow breed, quite cured from the original diseases, febrine and flatness, write us, 'Not one worm died; not one sick; all made their cocoons.'

"As for the price of our silk, in 1876, MM. Delubac freres, of Vals, Ardeche, re-reelers on a large scale, having re-reeled a sample of ours, valued it at the rate of one hundred and thirty francs to the kilogram, same price as good, first rate French silk, though our reeler was and is yet an apprentice. It has not been without trouble and sacrifice that we have succeeded in importing those fine, but all more or less diseased breeds. One could say we could be satisfied with the Japanese, with its great improvements, but we know too well the importance of first rate breeds, and their cheapness in reeling and re-reeling, as well as their superiority over all others. The fact is, that a farmer having employed four of his children in silk-worm raising, and gotten a full crop out of two acres of mulberry trees, say 600 pounds of cocoons, in May, will employ his two daughters, twelve to sixteen years old, in reeling his cocoons. If his cocoons belong to a Japanese breed of the best ones, he has to discard at the least fifteen per cent. of double cocoons, worth one-third of the price of the other; twelve to fifteen pounds of fresh cocoons will be needed for one pound of silk. His two daughters will reel only two and a half to three pounds of silk every week, at the average rate of $6 to $10, say $8 per pound, and make only $20 to $25 worth of silk every week, from June till November. While if the 600 pounds of cocoons belong to the fine yellow breeds, there will be no doubles to discard; at ten pounds for one, 600 pounds of cocoons make sixty pounds of reeled silk; four to six pounds can be reeled per week, at the rate of $8 to $14 per pound, so the two girls will realize at the least $40 a week for the house, if they reel only four pounds a week, at the average rate of $10 per pound of yellow silk in good condition. The re-reeler will find great advantage in buying this silk at $10, instead of Chinese, or Bengal, or others, at $3 to $6, because he will spare at the least three-fourths of his operatives, and in many cases four-fifths. I have seen one girl lazily attending 100 reels, running without any accountable interruption, while five other girls were quite busy with a row of twenty-five reels of Asiatic silk, which could never run ten minutes altogether in spite of the desperate efforts of their five attendants, made quite mad with their handsful of wasted silk, while the first shows proudly all her waste mixed with her hair, almost imperceptible. The acclimation of such races of cocoons can be called a success, since it makes reeling quite a good job for farmers, who surely will prefer to see their girls working at home, making $20 to $40 every week, than to send them out at the rate of fifty cents to $2 per week, or sometimes for their board, as too often is the case, from New York to San Francisco.

"The transportation of the eggs can be sure in the fall before the eggs have been frozen, because warm temperature can hatch them or cause the embryon to move and spoil them, only after they have been exposed to a freezing point, or submitted to the action of some acids. By these last means one can hatch the eggs almost when he pleases, but very much easier as soon as they are laid by the female moth. In another point of view, it is thought by learned bacologists that the harder the cold the healthier will be the eggs exposed to it. In this case it is better for our clients to receive the eggs in March, and to let them be purified by our first-rate cold days. The trade of eggs would be a great deal more remunerative than silk trade, but it is very dangerous, too, as the eggs are hatching every spring, sold or not sold. Such prospects can not be quoted as worth consideration on mulberry and silk culture, though great fortunes can be made rapidly with it, if the trader is successful and wise.

"Fresh leaves, good ventilation, seventy to eighty degrees Fahrenheit, with an average of twenty-six to thirty-two days from hatching till spinning, are what is wanted for silk growing successfully.

"Fifteen to twenty pounds of leaves are needed for one pound of cocoons, according to the kind of trees the leaves belong to. Example:

White Mulberry 20 lbs. leaves, equal 1 lb. cocoons.
Rose 17 "       "      "      "      "
Morette 15 "       "      "      "      "
Lpoa or Japanese (Morus Japonica) 14 1/2 "       "      "      "      "
"All these varieties of mulberry trees grow luxuriantly in the United States.

Investment in the silk business:

Factory Building $1,700
Looms, estimated at 500
Cocconery Fixtures 425
Mulberry Plantations, cost, exclusive of land 755
Permanent Investment $3,380
Stock of goods on hand variable; value now on hand estimated at 3,000
Total Investment $6,380

Manufactures. - Cutler township: steam cheese factory, capital, $1,500. Franklin township: steam elevator. Centropolis township: steam saw mill, capital, $450. Harrison township: steam saw mill, capital, $2,500. City of Ottawa: water power flouring mill and elevator, capital, $30,000; steam flouring mill and elevator, capital, $30,000; wagon manufactory, capital, $4,000; cigar factory, capital, $1,000; steam foundry, capital, $5,000; steam oil mill, capital, $4,000; soap factory, capital, $3,000; steam machine shops, capital, $100,000. Peoria township: steam saw mill, capital, $2,000. Willamsburg township: steam saw mill, capital, $300; steam flour mill and elevator, capital, $25,000; steam cheese factory, capital, $1,000; silk factory, capital, $500.

Valuation and Indebtedness. - Assessed valuation of personal property, $553,162; railroad property, $293,606.10; total assessed valuation of all property, $2,966,069.34; true valuation of all property, $4,943,448.90. Total indebtedness of county, township, city and school districts, $324,327.27; per cent. of indebtedness to assessed valuation, 11 -.

Newspaper History. - The first printing press brought to Kansas was the first one in Franklin county, or what is now Franklin county. In 1834, or twenty years before the organization of the Territory of Kansas, the Rev. Joseph Meeker, missionary to the Ottawa and other tribes, brought an old-fashioned press and printing materials to the Old Mission Farm of the Baptists, five miles northeast of the present town site of Ottawa, and two miles southeast of the old "Toy" Jones farm on Ottawa creek. It was sent out by the Baptist Home Mission Society, of New York, at the earnest request of Rev. Mr. Meeker, the first missionary to the Indians of the Northwest. Mr. Meeker published a small missionary paper in the English and Cherokee languages. In addition to this, Mr. Meeker wrote and published several Sunday school books, all in the Indian tongue, a book of the code of laws of the Ottawas, a hymn book and several school books. Finally the type and material were scattered, and as late as 1865 whole handsfull of type could be picked up near where the missionary and his wife lie buried.

The next paper in this county was the Kansas Leader, which was published at Centropolis, by W. H. Austin. It existed from the fall of 1856 to the spring of 1857, when it was sold out to the Mineola Town Company, and moved to the new town site two miles east of Centropolis.

This new paper was named the Mineola Statesman by Gen. Lane, and was successively edited by Joel K. Goodin, Owen A. Bassett and Ben. Sanford. It lived six or eight months, and suspended after the final removal of the State Capital from Mineola. The press was sold to S. S. Prouty, and by him taken to Burlington, in Coffey county. The type and other material were scattered.

The Journal, a little 4x6 paper, was next published by Master Charles W. Goodin, son of Judge J. K. Goodin, at Centropolis, with the material gathered up from the old Statesman office. It was a boys' paper, and lasted from March 9 to September 3, 1864, running up a circulation of about 500.

The Ottawa Home Journal was started in Ottawa shortly after the county seat was located there, by I. S. Kalloch and C. T. Evans in the fall of 1865. Mr. Kalloch was the editor and Mr. Evans associate editor. It was Republican in politics. This paper was rather literary than political, and acquired a large circulation. It continued until the spring of 1857, when John Kitts, the former foreman, bought a half interest, but, dissolving partnership with Kalloch within a few months, he took the job department and opened a job office and published the Ottawa Register, a small business weekly, edited by M. L. Laws. This continued until the 10th of March, 1868. In March, 1868, P. Fales and John Kitts bought out the Home Journal and changed the name to Republic; politics Republican, and edited by Prof. Fales. This paper continued until September 13, 1869.

On the 13th of September, 1869, Mr. C. Godfrey Patterson, of New York, purchased the Republic office, and started the Ottawa Journal, without changing its politics. The paper was edited by Patterson, with Geo. H. Cheever, associate, and H. H. Hand, local editor, a portion of the time. In January, 1870, L. J. Perry bought a half interest, but relinquished it after three weeks. In June, 1871, E. H. Snow, and C. W. Nelson bought the paper, but Nelson only remained until January 18th, 1872, when his interest was taken by Warren Anderson, formerly of the Ottawa Herald, who took editorial charge on February 17th. He stayed only until August 20th following, when Snow became sole proprietor. On May 20th, 1873, Mr. Louis Melius, late associate editor of the Cincinnati Christian Union, became half owner, and edited the paper until May 25th, 1874, with F. A. Marcell as local editor a portion of the time, and G. B. Jenness during the year ending March 1st, 1874. At that date, John Bain bought a third interest, and the firm became Snow, Melius & Bain. Up to Melius' time, the paper had always been Republican, but within a few months it became an organ of the Liberal party, and supported Greeley. On December 4th, 1874, the firm bought the Lawrence Republican, mortgaging the Ottawa Journal office, and continued to run both papers, with J. Y. Hewitt, as editor of the Journal, and Melius and Snow at Lawrence. On December 7th, 1875, by foreclosure of mortgage, the presses and material of the old Ottawa Journal office fell into the hands of John Hutchings, of Lawrence, who ran it with Mr. Diggs for editor, until its final suspension on the 22d day of January, 1876, as a Republican paper. Finally the office was sold and removed to Kansas City.

The Ottawa Herald was started by Anderson & Tone, of Xenia, Ohio, who issued its first number December 6, 1869. The paper was edited jointly by these gentlemen, with J. W. Morrison foreman of the mechanical department. The Herald continued thus Republican in politics until January 10, when Warren Anderson sold his interest to Morrison. The new firm conducted it, with Harrison Tone, as editor, until August 17, 1872, when the office was sold at sheriff's sale, and was bought by the Liberal Publishing Company, organized at the time. The new company changed the name of paper from Ottawa Herald to Kansas Liberal, and the politics also, and it strongly supported Horace Greeley for the Presidency. It was edited by John Y. Hewitt, and continued until March 19, 1873.

The Democratic Leader was started by John Bain, October 28, 1871, with the press and material formerly used by the Lynden (Osage county) Signal, and was edited by Major A. J. Allen until January 13, 1872, when H. H. Hand took editorial charge and conducted it until August 10, 1872, at which time Bain sold out the concern to the Liberal Publishing Company, who consolidated the two papers in the Liberal. In March, 1873, the old Leader press and material were sold to Dr. Cooper, who removed the office to Garnett and started the Garnett Journal.

On March 19, 1873, Mr. A. T. Sharpe purchased the Liberal, and changed the name of the paper to the Ottawa Republican, and the politics to correspond. W. D. Palmer was given a working interest, and the firm was known as Sharpe & Palmer. The editorial department was conducted by George B. Jenness. On September 26, 1873, Mr. J. N. Murdoch bought a half interest of Sharpe, Palmer retiring and taking the position of foreman on a salary, and the new firm managed the paper six months, with Murdoch in editorial charge. At this time Mr. Sharpe became sole owner, with Murdoch editor and G. B. Jenness local. On January 23, 1875, G. B. Jenness assumed editorial charge, and Murdoch retired. Jenness continued until May 10, 1877, when he left the paper, and Sharpe assumed editorial control, with Mr. Clark as local, and, under this management, the paper still continues.

The only daily venture ever tried in Ottawa, or the county, was the Daily Times, which was started February 11, 1873. It was owned by W. C. Paul and edited by G. B. Jenness. This continued until October 26, 1873, and suspended.

The Ottawa Weekly Times was started by the Paul Brothers (Solon and Wilber), June 6, 1874, and continued until May 5, 1875, when the press and material were removed to St. Louis, and the subscription list was turned over to the Republican. The Times was Republican in politics.

The Ottawa Triumph was started August 5, 1875, by E. H. Snow, with new presses and material, and continued under his editorial management until April 1, 1877, when it was sold out to a stock company, and the politics changed from Independent Greenback to Republican. Under the Journal Publishing Company, the name was changed to Ottawa Journal and Triumph. The first number of this new Republican paper was issued in April, 1877, under the editorial control of F. A. Marcell. Mr. Snow remains in the office in a general capacity, and both own an interest in the concern. The firm name remains "Journal Publishing Company."

The first regular real estate paper in Franklin county, was published by George B. Jenness, in May, 1868, and was named the Land Owner. From that date to the present time there have been many of this class of papers, but none have been published with any regularity, except the Kansas Guide, which continues at this date. Of these, A. B. Taylor issued the Bulletin, in the latter part of 1869; G. W. Hamblin, the Kansas Guide, in 1869; Col. Fisk, the Land Agent; Sheldon & Richmond, the Record; Sheldon & Hewitt, the Real Estate Register, and S. D. Shipman, the Land List. All these were published during the years of 1869 and 1870, and one or two of them continued up to 1872 and 1873, but the Hamblin Guide is the only one now remaining.

The State Press, a Democratic weekly paper, was started at Ottawa, Oct. 12, 1878, by M. M. Bleakmore. Its publication is still continued.

Schools. - Number of organized districts, 83; school population, 4,782; average salary of teachers, per month, males, $36.12; females, $30.00. School houses built during 1878, frame, 2. Total number of school houses, 76; log, 5; frame, 54; brick, 4; stone, 13. Value of all school property, $83.876. There are many of the grounds planted with trees. A few are shaded by natural growth of timber.

Churches. - Baptist: organizations, 8, membership, 408; church edifices, 4; value of church property, $6,000. Congregational: organizations, 2; membership, 87; church edifices, 2; value of church property, $7,000. Episcopal: organizations, 2; membership, 24. Lutheran: organizations, 1; membership, 40. Methodist Episcopal: organizations, 25; membership, 1,228; church edifices, 8; value of church property, $24,300. Presbyterian: organizations, 4; membership, 150; church edifices, 1; value of church property, $5,700. Roman Catholic: organizations, 2; membership, 150. United Presbyterians: organizations, 3; membership, 150; church edifices, 1; value of church property, $3,000.