Return to Index

Kansas State Board of Agriculture
First Biennial Report

Leavenworth County


Map of Leavenworth County - 1878

First settlements: Reno township, March 9, 1856, by John Farrell; Stranger township, probably by Jacob Branson; Fairmount township, 1859, Ben. Harrod; Alexandria township, 1854, John Wright; Tonganoxie, 1861, Wilson H. Fox, James French and William English; Easton township, fall of 1854, H. B. Gale, J. C. Cram, Melvin Cool, and S. F. Rhea; High Prairie, 1854, immigrants from Platte county, Missouri. - First church buildings: Reno township, 1872, Methodist; Stranger township, Roman Catholic - the school houses are generally used for religious worship; Fairmount township, 1876, Fairmount, Presbyterian; Alexandria township, Springdale, Society of Friends; Tonganoxie township, at Tonganoxie, date and denomination not given; Easton township, in 1860, the Baptist, Methodist, Presbyterian and Christian denominations united in paying off a mechanics' lien upon the Masonic building at Round Prairie, which is still used jointly as a place of worship; High Prairie township, 1860, Christian. - First school houses: Reno township, 1869, district No. 42; Stranger township, 1865, built by Dr. Gray as a dwelling, and sold to district No. 27; Fairmount township, 1865, district No. 35; Alexandria township, 1857, erected by the Society of Friends - Alice Newby was the first teacher; Tonganoxie township, 1863, by subscription, before the districts were organized; Easton township, 1856, built by private parties - after the organization of the districts the first house was built by district No. 4; High Prairie township 1864, district No. 2. - First marriages: Michael Retzsinger and Ellen Swisher, 1865; Fairmount township, Jacob Morris and Cassinda Reynolds; Alexandria township, Henry Dunlap and Hannah Way, November 25, 1860; Easton township, Armistead Dawson and Miss Pindman. - First births: John Farrell; Alexandria township, Mordecai Hiatt, May 20, 1856; Easton township, John Dawson. - First business established: Reno township, general merchandise, John Jacobs; Fairmount township, A. S. Penfield; Alexandria township, general store, 1860, B. W. Hiatt; Easton township, Armistead Dawson had a "ranche" and store on the Stranger, where Easton now stands, about 1852, and traded with the Indians. - First post offices: Reno township, Reno, John Jacobs, postmaster; Stranger township, Hoge, 1868, Joseph Doge, postmaster; Fairmount township, Kelly station, 1866, A. S. Penfield, postmaster; Alexandria township, Springdale, 1860, D. F. Walker, postmaster; Tonganoxie township, Tonganoxie, 1862, William English, postmaster; Easton township - Kickapoo was formerly a part of this township, and the first post office was at that place; afterwards Easton was organized, and an office established at the town of that name. - The county poor asylum is located in High Prairie township, and the number of inmates averages about thirty. The State penitentiary is located in Delaware township, five miles south of the city of Leavenworth; number of prisoners at date of last report (November 30, 1876,) 406. Fort Leavenworth, with the military reservation, is included within the boundaries of Kickapoo township. The post was established in 1827. A part of the Third regiment of the army was stationed at the present site of the fort, and the post was named in honor of the colonel of the regiment, Henry H. Leavenworth. It was called a cantonment until 1832, when it became a fort. A few miles west of the fort, in the territory of the Kickapoo Indians, the Methodists and Catholics established their missionaries at an early day. These, with the Indian traders and their families, formed the first settlement of whites in Kickapoo township. Within a month after the passage of the bill organizing the Territory of Kansas, a large portion of the township was settled and claimed by immigrants from Missouri and neighboring States. Among the earliest; settlers after the organization of the Territory were the Burnes, from Weston, Mo., the Freelands, Beagles, Thompsons, Codys, including the father of "Bill" Cody, the celebrated scout; the Hendersons, W. Finley, Alex. Russell, the Merchants, and Captain Martin, afterwards leader of the famous pro-slavery organization known as the "Kickapoo Rangers." Or those living in the country previous to 1854, were the Dyers, and M. P. Rively, Indian traders, and the Grovers and Shalers, of the Kickapoo Mission. The little town of Kickapoo was one of the first established in Kansas. For three or four years it grew rapidly, and contained several dry goods houses, grocery stores, two or three drug stores, as many hotels, a steam saw mill, a shingle mill, and three saloons. During the war it gradually declined, and at the present time there is little left to entitle it to the name of a town.

LEAVENWORTH CITY. - First settlement, June, 1854, by the Leavenworth Town Company. - First church buildings: First ward, 1856-7, Episcopal, south side of Seneca street, between Second and Third; Second ward, May, 1855, southeast corner of Fifth and Shawnee streets, Lutheran, built by Rev. J. B. McAfee, and also used for school purposes; Third ward, no report; Fourth ward, 1854, corner of Fifth and Kickapoo streets, by Rev., now Bishop, Miege. First, school buildings: First ward, 1867, Morris school, southeast corner of Fifth and Dacotah streets; Second ward, see church building mentioned above, also used as a school; Third ward, no report; Fourth ward, 1865, Osage street school, between Sixth and Seventh streets, First marriages: First ward, John Griffin and Johanna Kennedy, October, 1855; Second ward, Michael Pryzbylowicz and Johanna Gerstenskee, July 22, 1856; Third and Fourth wards, no report. - First births: First ward, Maggie Casey, June 29, 1856; Second ward, Cora C. Kyle, now Mrs. J. M. Allen, December 5, 1854, in the old Leavenworth Hotel. First business established: First ward, hotel, Edmund Walsh, Seneca street, between Third and Fourth; Second ward, newspaper publisher, Wm. H. Adams, 1854, Leavenworth Herald; first store, Lewis N. Rees; Third ward, no report; Fourth ward, hotel, Charles Holborn, Metropolitan avenue, between Seventh street and Broadway. - First post office: corner of Main street and Levee, north side, Lewis N. Rees, postmaster. The county court house is located in the Second ward, erected at a cost of $142,596.22. The county jail is also in this ward, erected at a cost of $10,000.

View of Leavenworth
(From Harper's Special Geography of Kansas)

Leavenworth County was originally organized by act of the Legislature, in 1855, and, in 1859, what is now the county of Wyandotte was cut off from Leavenworth. The original county included within its boundaries the Delaware trust lands, the Delaware reserve and diminished reserve, the Muncie lands, a small portion of the Kickapoo lands, the military reservation of Fort Leavenworth, and the Wyandotte lands. The first Board of County Commissioners consisted of John A. Halderman, Probate Judge and ex officio President of the Board, Joseph Hall and Matthew R. Walker. The first meeting of the Board was held on Friday, September 7, 1855, and the first official act was the appointment of James M. Lyle as Clerk of the Board; the second was to divide the county into municipal townships. The city of Leavenworth was declared the temporary county seat, and an election to fix the permanent county seat was ordered for the second Monday in October, 1855. At that election the vote was reported as follows: For Delaware, 929; Kickapoo, 878; Leavenworth, 726, with several scattering. The two Commissioners declared Delaware the county seat, but Judge Halderman refused to give a certificate. G. D. Todd was the first Sheriff, H. D. McMeekin, Under-Sheriff. The county seat was removed to Delaware February 20, 1857. In October of the same year, another election was held, when Leavenworth was selected as the county seat, and it has since remained there. The first court held in the county was organized by Hon. S. D. Lecompte, the first Chief Justice of the Territory, March 19, 1855. The first members of the Legislature elected from the county, at the election held March 30, 1855, were R. R. Rees and L. J. Eastin, editor of the Herald, to the Council, and Wm. G. Mathias, A. D. Payne and H. D. McMeekin to the Lower House.

Leavenworth county was organized in 1855.

MILITARY RESERVATION OF FORT LEAVENWORTH. - This is one of the largest, most valuable and choicest reservations belonging to the military department of the United States. It was undoubtedly selected in the first place on account of its elegant and commanding position, and the great beauty of its surroundings, as well as the healthy situation. It is truly a lovely and charming spot naturally, and of late years it has been greatly beautified and improved under the skillful and energetic care and management of the department commander, Maj. Gen. John Pope, as the post of Fort Leavenworth is the headquarters of the department of the Missouri. The reservation, or at least that portion of it which lies on the right bank of the Missouri river, is within the county of Leavenworth. A small portion of the reservation lies across the Missouri river, opposite the post, in the State of Missouri. It has been generally supposed and so reported, that Fort Leavenworth as it is now called, and the reservation attached thereto, was established by Col. Leavenworth, by order of the War department, on the twenty-first day of June, A. D. 1826, and called Cantonment Leavenworth. By the subjoined "History," it would appear that it was 1827 instead of 1826.

(From Mitchell's New Intermediate Geography, Kansas Edition.

"HISTORY OF FORT LEAVENWORTH RESERVATION. - Orders from Adjutant General's office, March 7th, 1827, direct Colonel Leavenworth, Third Infantry, with four companies of his regiment to ascend the Missouri river, and when at a point on its left bank, near the mouth of Little Platte river, and within a range of twenty miles above or below its confluence, to select such position as, in his judgement, is best calculated for the site of a permanent cantonment. (See Apendix[sic] 'A.')

"Colonel Leavenworth, under date of May 8th, 1827, writes from camp 'Mouth of Little Platte,' that after a short examination of the country, there was no good site for a military post on the left bank of the Missouri, within the distance of the place mentioned in the general orders from the Adjutant General's office, and accordingly proceeded up the river some twenty miles and found a very good site for a cantonment on the right bank of the Missouri, about twenty miles from the mouth of the Little Platte, and concludes that there is no other place that will answer the purpose required within the prescribed distance of that river.

"July 11th, 1827, Colonel Leavenworth writes that he has not yet received an answer to his letter of May 8th, 1827, and consequently does not know that his selection of the site for a cantonment will be approved. Has, however, commenced the erection of the quarters, and called the post, Cantonment Leavenworth, as appears from the post return.

"September 19th, 1827, Adjutant General R. Jones informs Mayor General Gaines, commanding Western Department, that the site selected by Colonel Leavenworth for a permanent cantonment, in virtue of general orders of March 7th, 1827, is approved by the General-in-Chief. The selection of the 'right' instead of the 'left bank' of the Missouri, for the reasons assigned by Colonel Leavenworth in his report of the 8th of May, is deemed to be judicious, and is therefore approbated.

"The troops were withdrawn May 16th, 1829, (but a detachment may have remained at the post.)

"The post was re-occupied August 12th, 1829, and continued so up to the present date.

"In general orders, No. 11, February 8th, 1832, the Secretary of War directs that all cantonments be called forts. Hence its present name - 'Fort Leavenworth.'

"The first reserve known in Adjutant General's office, as having been declared by the President, is of date June 21st, 1838.

"The land held as reserved, extends from six to seven miles along the Missouri river, and varies from one to two miles wide, containing about 6,840 acres.

"The reservation is on the right bank of the Missouri river, and about one hundred and fifty feet above its surface. Latitude 39° 21' north; longitude 94° 44' west.

"On October 10, 1854, a new reservation was declared by the President.

"Referring to Vol. 10, Stat. at Large, p. 1048, Art. 1, will be seen the Treaty made with the Delaware tribe of Indians, May 6, 1854.

"Attention is invited to the Quartermaster-General's report to the Secretary of War, December 4, 1871, as follows:

"'The State (Kansas) was admitted to include all territory within certain boundaries, except certain Indian lands, which by treaty with Indian tribes, could not be included in any State or Territorial Governments, without consent of such tribes.

"'I fear, therefore, that the United States has ceded away its exclusive jurisdiction over the reservation.

"'I am not advised of any law ceding such jurisdiction back to the United States.

"'Whether, under the Constitution, the reservation of this land as a site for a military post and public buildings, takes it out of the effect of the law of 1859, I am not able to decide.

"'As appears from the report of the Department Commander, under the decision of the Commissioner of the General Land Office, the boundaries of the Indian claim as allowed, would barely include the actual buildings of the post proper, leaving outside, as far as can be ascertained, hospital, guardhouse, arsenal buildings and grounds, upper farm and corrals, forage and hay yards, wagon sheds, National Cemetery, and indeed all that is valuable on the reservation. except the actual buildings of the post proper.

"'I recommend, as the question is a very important one, that it be definitely settled by competent authority, and, if it can be legally done, in such manner as will not impair the present usefulness of the reserve as a site for a military post and Government buildings.'



"Orders] "ADJUTANT-GENERAL'S OFFICE, March 7, 1827.


*  *  *  *  *  *  *  *  *  *  *  *

"2. - Colonel Leavenworth, of the Third Infantry, with four companies of his regiment, will ascend the Missouri river, and when he reaches a point on its left bank, near the mouth of Little Platte river, and within a range of twenty miles above or below its confluence, he will select such position as, in his judgment, is best calculated for the site of a permanent cantonment. The spot being chosen, he will then construct, with the troops of his command, comfortable, though temporary quarters, sufficient for the accommodation of four companies.

"This movement will be made as early as the convenience of the service will permit.

*  *  *  *  *  *  *  *  *  *  *  *

"5. - . . . . All facilities requisite for carrying the provisions of this order into effect will be furnished by the proper Departments of the Staff, and the Commanding General of the Western Department is charged with its execution.


"By order of Major General. Brown.
R. JONES, Adjutant General.

"REMARKS. - 'Joint Resolution of Congress, approved February 9, 1871' authorizes the sale of a portion of the Fort Leavenworth Military Reservation to the Kansas Agricultural and Mechanical Association, of Leavenworth county, in the State of Kansas, for fair grounds.

"Act 'approved July 27, 1868,' grants the right of way to certain railway companies over the Fort Leavenworth Military Reservation.

"Act 'approved July 27, 1868,' donates a portion of the Fort Leavenworth Military Reservation for the exclusive use of a public road.

"Act, 'approved July 20, 1868,' authorizes the sale of twenty acres of land in the Fort Leavenworth Military Reservation to the Leavenworth Coal Company.'

In addition to that portion of the reservation occupied by the fort proper, there are two large farms - the upper and lower - the one above the post, north, in the bottom, and the one south. Both are in a high state of cultivation. They are the only farms that have proved a success when cultivated by the Government. There are three railroads passing across the reservation - the Leavenworth, Atchison & Northwestern, leased and operated by the Missouri Pacific, running along the west bank of the Missouri river, across the reservation, north and south; the Rock Island & Pacific Railroad, entering the reservation from the east, near the post, over the great iron bridge which spans the Missouri river at this point; the Kansas Central (narrow gauge), which enters the reservation at the northeast corner, on the river, and meanders northwest through the lower farm. The reservation lies immediately north, and adjoining the city of Leavenworth. The post or fort lies about two miles north of the city. A splendid macadam drive connects the two points.

Population in 1800, 12,606; in 1870, 32,444; increase in ten years, 19,838; population in 1875, 27,698; decrease in five years, 4,746; population in 1878, 28,544; increase in eighteen years, 15,938. Rural population, 11,418; city or town population, 17,126; per cent. of rural to city or town population, 40.

POPULATION of 1878, by Townships and Cities.
Alexandria 1,184 Delaware 2,357 Easton 1,241
Fairmount 1,066 High Prairie 1,015 Kickapoo 1,415
Leavenworth 15,559 Reno 738 Stranger 1,205
Sherman 1,006 Tonganoxie 1,758 ----- -----

Face of the Country. - Bottom land, 20 per cent.; upland, 80 per cent.; forest (Government survey), 10 per cent.; prairie, 90 per cent. Average width of bottoms from one to one and a half miles; general surface of the country, undulating; near the Missouri river, bluffy.

Timber. - Average width of timber belts, from one to one and a half miles. Varieties: white oak, walnut, burr oak, cottonwood, hickory, hackberry, etc. In nearly all the townships where there is not a plentiful natural growth, trees are being cultivated by a majority of the farmers. The quantities are small in each case, and the reports are so meager and indefinite that the areas can not be stated.

Principal streams. - The Missouri river skirts the northeast corner of the county, flowing in a southeasterly direction. The Kansas river, flowing east, bounds the county on the south. Big Stranger flows south into the Kansas river; Little Stranger southwest into Big Stranger. Nine-mile creek flows southeast. There are numerous smaller streams. The county is well supplied with springs; good well water is obtained at a depth of from 15 to 25 feet.

Coal. - Coal underlies about 7 per cent. of the area of the county. Thickness, 28 inches; depth below surface, 50 to 700 feet; quality, good; used almost exclusively for local, domestic and manufacturing purposes. At Leavenworth City, a shaft has been sunk to the depth of 710 feet and a 30-inch vein is being mined. The amount mined during the past year is stated at 1,500,000 bushels. From 1871 to 1878, inclusive, there have been mined 6,380,000 bushels. It is known as Leavenworth coal.

Building Stone, etc. - The whole county is underlaid with good flint blue limestone; large quantities, of an excellent quality, are quarried at the Penitentiary, near Leavenworth. Sandstone is also found in the southern part of the county. Hydraulic cement and fire clay reported in Reno township, but not developed.

Railroad Connections. - The Kansas Pacific Railway crosses the county in a southwest direction from Leavenworth, joining the Kansas City line at Lawrence; stations: Stranger, Tonganoxie, Reno. The Missouri Pacific Railroad follows the south bank of the Missouri; stations: Leavenworth, Fort Leavenworth, Kickapoo. Leavenworth is one of the termini of the Chicago, Rock Island & Pacific Railroad, which crosses the Missouri on the fine iron bridge, and connects with the Hannibal & St. Joseph Railroad at Cameron, Missouri. The Kansas City, St. Joseph & Council Bluffs Railroad follows the opposite bank of the river, with a station at East Leavenworth. The Kansas Central Railroad (narrow gauge) starts from Leavenworth City, and runs in a northwest direction to Valley Falls, Holton and Onaga.

Agricultural Statistics. - Acres in the county, 291,200; taxable acres, 284,276; under cultivation, 127,970.38; cultivated to taxable acres, 45.02 per cent.; increase of cultivated acres during the year, 7,572.88.

Value of Garden Produce, Poultry and Eggs Sold during the Year. - Garden produce, $16,019; poultry and eggs, $14,085.

Old Corn on Hand. - Old corn on hand March 1st, 1878, 340,350 bushels, or an average of 60 bushels to each family.

Dairy Products. - Number of cheese factories, 1; capital invested, none reported; manufactured in 1875, 33,150 lbs.; in 1878, 22,018 lbs.; decrease, 11,132 lbs. Butter manufactured in 1875, 222,818 lbs.; in 1878, 266,461 lbs.; increase, 43,643 lbs.

Farm Animals. - Number of horses, in 1877, 5,825; in 1878, 6,470; increase, 645. Mules and asses, in 1877, 1,108; in 1878, 1,258; increase, 150. Milch cows, in 1877, 6,429; in 1878, 6,591; increase, 162. Other cattle, in 1877, 9,100; in 1878, 10,810; increase, 1,710. Sheep, in 1877, 3,427; in 1878, 2,929; decrease, 498. Swine, in 1877, 16,421; in 1878, 25,935; increase, 9,514.

Sheep Killed by Dogs. - Number of sheep killed by dogs, 90; value of sheep killed by dogs, $270.

Wool. - Clip of 1877, 7,318 lbs.

Value of Animals Slaughtered. - Value of animals slaughtered and sold for slaughter during the year, $165,378.02.

STATEMENT showing the Acreage of Field Crops named from 1872 to 1878, inclusive.

CROPS. 1872. 1873. 1874. 1875. 1876. 1877. 1878.
Winter Wheat 4,245.00 5,346.00 8,902.00 5,687.10 9,205.00 14,036.00 24,902.00
Rye 579.00 579.00 603.00 601.00 2,169.00 2,096.00 808.00
Spring Wheat 49.00 307.00 245.00 18.00 42.00 1,072.00 156.00
Corn 43,921.00 41,875.00 56,802.00 56,848.97 55,031.00 54,095.00 48,031.00
Barley 107.00 43.00 91.00 81.30 195.00 409.00 108.00
Oats 8,714.00 8,888.00 12,609.00 5,592.50 8,165.00 5,756.00 8,286.00
Buckwheat 98.00 300.00 24.00 607.23 160.50 101.00 45.00
Irish Potatoes 2,005.00 1,658.00 1,677.00 2,289.37 2,253.83 1,916.00 2,034.00
Sweet Potatoes 45.00 69.00 150.00 65.87 82.92 93.00 53.50
Sorghum 77.00 109.00 219.00 448.62 439.00 432.00 239.75
Castor Beans ----- 24.00 15.00 20.00 5.00 8.50 0.50
Cotton ----- ----- 0.40 3.25 11.50 19.00 -----
Flax 14.00 41.00 158.00 811.25 541.00 210.00 85.00
Hemp 135.00 101.00 15.00 287.00 224.00 234.00 45.00
Tobacco 14.00 17.75 11.00 25.50 27.87 14.00 10.63
Broom Corn ----- ----- 106.00 134.75 198.25 53.00 32.00
Millet and Hungarian 1,112.00 2,103.00 3,496.00 6,267.00 5,320.50 3,148.00 1,970.00
Timothy Meadow 1,763.00 1,763.00 2,065.00 2,762.00 1,945.25 2,644.00 4,151.00
Clover Meadow 2,513.00 2,514.00 2,229.00 540.00 482.25 2,470.00 949.50
Prairie Meadow 11,173.00 9,612.00 12,873.00 19,395.00 16,418.00 15,463.00 16,009.00
Timothy Pasture 515.00 74.00 586.00 764.00 751.00 466.00 1,347.50
Clover Pasture 867.00 824.00 666.00 382.00 166.50 87.00 371.00
Blue-Grass Pasture 3,528.00 3,046.00 3,521.00 7,516.00 4,225.50 4,662.00 7,471.00
Prairie Pasture 11,834.00 10,352.00 9,877.00 23,169.75 21,006.00 10,913.00 10,865.00

Total 93,308.00 89,645.75 116,940.40 134,317.46 129,065.87 120,397.50 127,970.38

Increase in six years, 37+ per cent.
Average increase per annum, 6.16 per cent.

RANK of Leavenworth County in the Crops named below, as to Acreage, and in Cultivated Acreage for the years mentioned in the foregoing table.

CROPS. 1872. 1873. 1874. 1875. 1876. 1877. 1878.

Wheat 29 27 32 45 43 25 27
Corn 6 8 3 9 8 17 21

Total Acreage in all Crops 12 12 5 9 10 17 22

STATEMENT showing the Acres, Product and Value of Principal Crops for 1878, together with the Increase and Decrease as compared with 1877.

FROM 1877.
IN 1878.
FROM 1877.
IN 1878.
FROM 1877.

Winter Wheat - bu. 24,902.00 10,866.00 in. 448,236.00 251,732.00 in. $322,729.92 $116,400.72 in.
Rye - bu. 808.00 1,288.00 de. 18,584.00 19,144.00 de. 5,575.20 8,761.44 de.
Spring Wheat - bu. 156.00 916.00 de. 1,560.00 9,160.00 de. 936.00 8,712.00 de.
Corn - bu. 48,031.00 6,064.00 de. 1,921,240.00 27,915.00 in. 441,885.20 50,379.30 de.
Barley - bu. 108.00 301.00 de. 2,160.00 6,429.00 de. 1,080.00 2,355.60 de.
Oats - bu. 8,286.00 2,530.00 in. 323,154.00 110,182.00 in. 54,936.18 12,341.78 in.
Buckwheat - bu. 45.00 56.00 de. 900.00 211.00 de. 720.00 168.80 de.
Irish Potatoes - bu. 2,034.00 118.00 in. 152,550.00 8,850.00 in. 61,020.00 25,200.00 de.
Sweet Potatoes - bu. 53.50 39.50 de. 6,420.00 2,880.00 de. 4,173.00 3,267.00 de.
Sorghum - gall. 239.75 192.25 de. 27,571.25 22,108.75 de. 13,785.63 11,054.37 de.
Castor Beans - bu. 0.50 8.00 de. 6.00 79.00 de. 7.50 77.50 de.
Cotton - lbs. ----- 19.00 de. ----- 3,230.00 de. ----- 323.00 de.
Flax - bu. 85.00 125.00 de. 1,020.00 870.00 de. 1,020.00 954.50 de.
Hemp - lbs. 45.00 189.00 de. 41,400.00 173,880.00 de. 2,484.00 10,432.80 de.
Tobacco - lbs. 10.63 3.37 de. 7,866.20 2,493.80 de. 786.62 249.38 de.
Broom Corn - lbs. 32.00 21.00 de. 25,600.00 16,800.00 de. 960.00 630.00 de.
Millet and Hungarian - tons 1,970.00 1,178.00 de. 5,910.00 1,960.00 de. 47,280.00 15,680.00 de.
Timothy Meadow - tons 4,151.00 1,507.00 in. 5,396.30 1,959.10 in. 43,170.40 15,672.80 in.
Clover Meadow - tons 949.50 1,520.50 de. 1,519.20 2,432.80 de. 12,153.60 19,462.40 de.
Prairie Meadow - tons 16,009.00 546.00 in. 20,812.00 710.10 in. 145,684.00 4,970.70 in.
Timothy Pasture acres 1,347.50 881.50 in. ----- ----- ----- -----
Clover Pasture - acres 371.00 284.00 in. ----- ----- ----- -----
Blue-Grass Pasture - acres 7,471.00 2,809.00 in. ----- ----- ----- -----
Prairie Pasture - acres 10,865.00 48.00 de. ----- ----- ----- -----

Total 127,970.38 7,572.88 in. ----- ----- $1,160,387.25 $8,332.09 de.

Horticulture. - Number of acres, nurseries, 45.85. Number of trees in bearing: apple, 109,443; pear, 3,942; peach, 86,113; plum, 2,061; cherry, 19,975. Number of trees not in bearing: apple, 114,758; pear, 2,493; peach, 25,400; plum, 1,562; cherry, 9,419.

Herd Law. - There is no herd law for cattle in this county. Hogs are restrained. There is much division of sentiment as to the utility of the general herd law, but a majority of the people seem to oppose it. The comparative abundance of fencing material has much to do with this. It is held that the law retards fence building and hedge growing, and stimulates the growth of grain, to the prejudice of the stock interest. The friends of the law urge that a poor man could better afford to herd his stock than to fence his farm; while others, on the contrary, hold that it would be a disadvantage to stock raising on account of the cost of pasturing, and an indirect damage to grain growing, which can only be made profitable where the grain is fed to stock.

Fences. - Stone, 21,974 rods; cost, $38,474.50. Rail, 208,506 rods; cost, $260,632.50. Board, 192,721 rods; cost, $269,809.40. Wire, 14,715 rods; cost, $10,300.50. Hedge, 254,611 rods; cost, $140,036.05. Total rods of fence, 692,527; total cost, $719,252.95.

Apiaculture. - Number of stands of bees, 2,385. Pounds of honey, 32,443; wax, 948.

Value of Agricultural Implements. - Amount invested in agricultural implements, $49,786.

Manufactures. - Alexandria township: steam saw and grist mills, 2, capital, $1,100. Delaware township: steam harness manufactory, capital, $5,000; steam wagon and carriage manufactories, capital invested, $120,000; steam-power shoe manufactory, capital, $10,000. Easton township: water-power flouring mill, capital, $10,000; steam flouring mill, capital, $3,000. City of Leavenworth: steam saw mills, 2, capital invested, $15,000; steam flouring mills, 4, combined capital, $250,000; steam furniture manufactories, 2, capital, $90,000; wagon and carriage manufactories, 7, combined capital, $54,500; steam-power brewery, capital; $75,000; steam-power woolen mill, capital, $60,000; steam foundries, 2, capital, $85,000; steam soap factories, 2, capital, $25,000; cotton mill, capital, $10,000; steam bridge manufactory, capital, $50,000; steam planing mill, capital, $60,000; paper box factory, capital, $500; steam boiler works, capital, $4,000; steam stove works, capital, $75,000; barrel factory, capital, $15,000; glue factory, capital, $1,000; wooden box factory, capital, $2,500; horse collar factory, capital, $3,000; saddle tree factory, capital, $2,000. Reno township: steam saw mill, capital, $600. Tonganoxie township: water-power flouring mill, capital, $4,000; cheese factory.

Valuation and Indebtedness. - Assessed valuation of personal property, $1,001,193; railroad property, $625,030.99; total assessed valuation of all property, $6,353,953.99; true valuation of all property, $10,589,923.32, Total indebtedness of county, township, city and school districts, $1,901,422.67, per cent. of indebtedness to assessed valuation, 30-.

Newspaper History. - The Herald, the first paper printed in Leavenworth or in the Territory of Kansas, was issued September 15, 1854. It was printed under an "old elm tree," on the levee, near the corner of Cherokee street. It was owned and published by William H. Adams, who at last accounts resided in Howard county, Missouri. William H. Osborne was interested in the original project, but, having no means, he dropped out, and Gen. Lucien J. Eastin took his place. Eastin was editor, and the publishing firm was Eastin & Adams. The Herald was intensely Pro-Slavery. In 1855, H. Rives Pollard, of Virginia, was associate editor. He was, we believe, subsequently a historian of the "Southern Confederacy," and was killed in an affray at Richmond soon after the close of the war. Gen. Eastin died at Glasgow, Missouri, two or three years since. Early in 1859, William H. Gill, military store-keeper at Fort Leavenworth, purchased an interest in the paper, and became its editor, a daily edition being established May 17, of that year. Ward Burlingame was also a writer on the paper. The political policy of the Herald was greatly modified under Mr. Gill's management, and it supported the nomination of Mr. Douglas vigorously. During the following year the paper fell into the hands of William P. Fain, who had been U. S. Marshal at a former period. Its financial status had become much impaired by this time, and the Herald was not prosperous under its new management. In the fall of 1860, Messrs. R. C. Satterlee, B. R. Wilson (now of the Oskaloosa Sickle and Sheaf), and C. W. Helm, assumed the management of the paper, Mr. Helm being the editor. June 13th, of the next year, Mr. Satterlee was shot and killed by Col. Anthony. The paper lingered a few days longer and expired, the last number being dated June 27, 1861.

The Kickapoo Pioneer, a Democratic Pro-Slavery paper, was established at Kickapoo, in November, 1854. A. B. Hazzard was the editor and proprietor. It survived about three years, and perished for want of support.

The Territorial Register was started in March, 1855, by Sevier & Delahay; the latter was afterward appointed U. S. District Judge by President Lincoln. Delahay was the editor, and the Register was strongly Free-State, but with conservative tendencies. On the night of December 22, 1855, it was destroyed by a quasi military organization - in fact, a mob, called the "Kickapoo Rangers." The material of the office was thrown into the Missouri river.

The Leavenworth Journal, a Pro-Slavery paper, but rather conservative in its views, was started in the spring of 1856. Col. S. S. Goode was the editor and proprietor, and was succeeded by "Jack" Henderson. In the spring of 1858, Hutchison & Campbell leased the establishment of John A. Halderman, to whom it had descended in satisfaction of indebtedness incurred. They published a daily edition for nearly a year, with indifferent success, when the building in which it was published fell, "pieing" the type, and destroying most of the other materials. A few numbers were subsequently issued at the Times office, when the Journal finally suspended.

In the latter part of 1857, George W. McLane established the Young America, an independent paper, inclined to Free-State views. It continued until September 1, 1857, when it was succeeded by the Daily Ledger, the first regular daily published west of St. Louis. McLane was the editor and proprietor, and Ward Burlingame was for a time employed as an editorial writer It was not a profitable enterprise, and, after a lingering existence of two years or upwards, it ceased to exist, in July, 1859.

The Times, a Free-State and Republican paper, was started March 7, 1857, by a stock company. It was edited by Robert Crozier, afterwards Chief Justice of the Supreme Court of the State and United States Senator, and now Judge of the First Judicial District. It subsequently passed into the hands of Col. J. C. Vaughan and his son, Champion Vaughan. The first number of the daily edition was published February 15, 1858. Subsequently J. Kemp Bartlett became a partner, and the firm was Vaughan & Bartlett, the latter finally becoming sole proprietor. During his ownership, David H. Bailey, late Consul at Hong Kong, recently transferred to Shanghai, we believe, was the editor for a considerable period. For a time, also, Edward F. Schneider, afterwards Major and Lieutenant-Colonel of the Eighth Kansas, had the editorial management. Bartlett finally sold the paper to Thomas Carney, who ran it for a considerable time under the nominal proprietorship of P. H. Hubbell, and others. In September, 1868, the proprietors of the Conservative purchased the Times establishment, and the two papers were merged, under the name of Times and Conservative. The latter part of the name was subsequently dropped, and the paper has ever since been known as the Times.

The Kansas Zeitung, a German Republican paper, was removed from Atchison to Leavenworth in September, 1858, by L. Soussman, who had purchased it of Dr. C. F. Kob. A daily edition was issued in September, 1863. Louis Weil purchased the establishment April 18, 1864, and published the paper until March 1, 1868, when it was consolidated with the Journal, under the name of the Kansas Staats Zeitung.

The Kansas Journal was started by Soussman & Kempf, March 1, 1865. Kempf retired the same fall. March 1, 1868, it was consolidated with the Zeitung. The establishment was destroyed by fire April 3, 1868, but the publication was not interrupted. Mr. Weil, who had been connected with the consolidated paper, withdrew in October, 1868. Mr. Soussman continued to publish the paper until April 1, 1869, when he became connected with the Freie Presse, and the Zeitung ceased to exist.

The Freie Presse was started by John M. Haberlein, April 1, 1869. After his death it was continued by his sons, and is still in successful existence.

L' Estafette du Kansas was a French paper, of Democratic politics, started by Frank Barclay, in the spring of 1859. It was not a success, financially, and continued but a short time.

The Evening Register, a Republican daily, was started by Delahay & Dugger, in August, 1859. It was afterwards issued by Dugger alone. Its existence was precarious, and after several temporary suspensions it died, in 1860.

The Daily Dispatch, an evening Democratic paper, was established early in 1859, by George F. Prescott, his brother, C. H. Prescott, and William White. It was a strong Douglas organ, and was printed on the press rescued from the ruins of the Journal office. The Dispatch was published ten or eleven months, when it suspended, G. F. Prescott's interest having previously been purchased by parties in the interest of Breckinridge as a Presidential candidate.

The Leavenworth Conservative, daily, tri weekly and weekly, was first issued January 28, 1861. The material of the Dispatch and Journal offices, with much that was new added, was used in the publication of the new paper. The Conservative was an extremely radical sheet, its name being a transparent sarcasm. D. R. Anthony was announced as publisher, and D. W. Wilder, editor. It was, however, a joint-stock concern, with D. R. Anthony, D. W. Wilder, Matthew Weightman, George F. Prescott, George C. Hume and Henry Buckingham as the interested parties. The material for the establishment was purchased by Anthony, who, having entered the military service, during the following fall, sold his interest to Wilder. Afterwards Weightman became a partner, and the firm was Wilder & Weightman. In September, 1864, they sold out to M. H. Insley. The paper was published by him and John W. Wright until May, 1868, when Wilder again bought into the establishment, and the paper was published by Wilder & Wright; Wilder, editor. During the proprietorship of Insley & Wright, the paper was edited successively by T. C. Sears, Ward Burlingame, George H. Hoyt and George T. Anthony. In August, 1868, Wright sold out to H. S. Sleeper, and in the following month the firm bought the Times, and the two papers were consolidated, taking the name of Times and Conservative, and subsequently of the Times. Hovey E. Lowman, formerly of the Lawrence Journal, was connected with the consolidated paper for a brief period as editor and one of the proprietors. April 2, 1871, the Times and Bulletin were consolidated, with W. S. Burke, editor, J. C. Ketcheson, business manager, and S. R. Marshall, treasurer. This arrangement only continued to May 6, when Burke withdrew, the Bulletin seceded from the combination, and the purchase of the Times by D. R. Anthony was announced. November 12, 1871, Anthony also purchased the good will, etc., of the Bulletin, and merged it with the Times, Burke continuing as the principal editorial writer. Col. J. W. Holden, son of ex-Gov. Holden, of North Carolina, was also announced a member of the staff. The Times is still owned and published by Col. Anthony, and Mr. Burke is still employed upon it.

Soon after the demise of the Herald, in June, 1861, the material of that concern was used for the establishment of the Inquirer, an intensely Democratic sheet, with strongly Southern tendencies. Burrill B. Taylor was the editor. The publication was continued until February 10, 1863, when its political utterances becoming obnoxious to the loyal sentiment of the community, the establishment was "gutted" and the material destroyed by mob violence.

The Evening Bulletin, a Republican paper, daily, tri-weekly and weekly, was first issued September 18, 1862, by the Bulletin Printing Company, consisting of H. Buckingham, A. N. Hamilton and G. F. Prescott. November 21, 1862, Buckingham, Hamilton, Prescott and S. S. Ludlum were announced as editors and proprietors, and a morning edition of the daily was published for a short time. In September, 1864, the establishment was purchased by D. R. Anthony, who continued the paper until August 21, 1865, when he sold it to C. D. Roys & Co., who were announced as editors and proprietors. April 26, 1866, the proprietorship was in the Bulletin Printing Company, and on June 26, of the same year, George T. Anthony was announced as editor. In 1868, the Co-operative Printing Company had control, with W. S. Burke, editor; and subsequently, in the same year, W. S. Burke & Co., and later, W. S. Burke alone, were the proprietors. The establishment was finally purchased by D. R. Anthony, November 12, 1871, and combined with the Times.

The Leavenworth Commercial, daily and weekly, Democratic, was established October 3, 1866, by George F. Prescott, George C. Hume and A. F. Callahan. In April, 1867, Callahan withdrew, and the publication was continued by Prescott & Hume. Afterwards the proprietorship was changed to the Commercial Printing Company, consisting of George F. Prescott and C. N. Shaw. April 27, 1873, the establishment was sold to Col. D. W. Houston and C. N. Shaw, under the firm name of Houston & Shaw, and the politics was changed to Republican. The paper was conducted by Houston for about eighteen months, when he sold it to J. W. Roberts, of the Oskaloosa Independent, who, however, only retained it for a few weeks, the establishment returning to Houston. It was subsequently published for a short time by Clarke, Tillotson & Legate, and on January 1, 1876, it was purchased by D. R. Anthony, who ran an evening edition for a few months, and then merged the establishment into the Times.

The Leavenworth Medical Herald, monthly, was established in June, 1867. C. A. Logan, M. D., and Tiffin Sinks, M. D., were the editors and proprietors. In June, 1871, the name was changed to the Leavenworth Medical Herald and Journal of Pharmacy, J. W. Brock, M. D., and Tiffin Sinks, M. D., editors of medical department and R. J. Brown, Ph. D., editor of pharmaceutical department. In July, 1872, the name was again changed to the Medical Herald, Tiffin Sinks, M. D., editor and proprietor. The Herald continued until 1876, when its publication was discontinued.

The Evening Call, a daily Republican paper, was established in the fall of 1868, by Joseph Clarke and James A. McMichael, the firm name being Joseph Clarke & Co. Clarke sold out to Louis Weil in May, 1873, and subsequently the firm became McMichael & Legate. The paper finally suspended in the latter part of 1873.

The Doniphan Democrat, at Doniphan, Democratic, was started in May, 1871, but lived less than one year. It was resuscitated in the summer of 1872 by Doctors J. J. and W. W. Crook, and called the Herald, also Democratic. It was removed to Leavenworth in a few weeks, where it was published under the same name. It led an uncertain existence, suspending periodically and starting again, and was kept alive in this way for two or three years, when it finally expired. A daily evening was published for a few weeks.

The Home Record is published monthly, under the supervision of the Board of Managers of the "Home for the Friendless," and is recognized as the organ of that institution, making known its wants, workings, etc. Mrs. C. H. Cushing is the editor, and the advertising department is under the control of Mrs. D. Byington. The Record was established in 1872.

The Argus, a daily evening Independent, paper, was started by W. S. Burke, in 1873, and ran about three months, when it expired.

The Appeal, a daily evening paper, Independent, but with Democratic tendencies, was started by Embry & Co. in the fall of 1873, and was continued as a daily, with indifferent success, until August 27th, 1877, when it was purchased by J. E. Ewing, and converted into a weekly. It is still being published, and is Independent in politics.

The Kansas Freeman was a monthly publication, established in the fall of 1873, by W. S. Burke. It was devoted to free discussion, or the liberal philosophy, and continued until the spring of 1874, when it was removed to Chicago.

In 1875, a publication devoted to the temperance cause, was started in Leavenworth, but was soon removed to Lawrence. We have not been able to procure more specific details.

The Public Press, a daily evening Republican paper, was established April 2d, 1877; H. B. Horn, editor; Ferd. J. Wendell, business manager. Wendell withdrew in July, 1878, and Horn is now the proprietor. A weekly edition was commenced June 21st, 1877. On the 31st of October, 1878, Charles H. Miller purchased the paper, and is now the sole proprietor.

The Evening Commercial, Democratic, was revived in 1877; H. Miles Moore, editor; - Talbot, manager. It survived but a short time.

The Cosmopolitan, weekly, by Louis Weil, and the Evening Ledger, daily, Democratic, by Frank Hall and J. W. Remington, each had a mere temporary existence in 1877.

The Western Homestead, monthly, established by W. S. Burke, May, 1878. It is devoted to agricultural and industrial topics, and general literature.

The Hornet, a daily evening Independent paper, established September 2d, 1878; R. E. Hardwicke & Co., editors and proprietors.

The Orphan's Friend was started in the fall of 1878, by the ladies of the Kansas Orphan Asylum, to set forth the claims and wants of that institution. Rev. J. B. McCleery is editor, and Mrs. Thomas Carney, business manager.

Schools. - Number of organized districts, 78; school population, 11,243; average salary of teachers per month, males, $42.91; females, $34.27. School houses built during 1878, 6; frame, 3; brick, 1; stone, 2. Total number of school houses, 84; log, 1; frame, 63; brick, 12; stone, 8. Value of all school property, $434,303. The school grounds of several districts are ornamented with trees of a natural growth, and a number of others have ornamented their grounds with an artificial growth.

Churches. - Baptist: organizations, 11; membership, 650; church edifices, 4; value of church property, $75,000. Congregational: organizations, 5; membership, 355; church edifices, 5; value of church property, $50,000. Episcopal: organizations, 2; membership, 84; church edifices, 2; value of church property, $17,000. Lutheran: organizations, 1; membership, 170; church edifices, 1; value of church property, $5,000. Methodist Episcopal: organizations, 9; membership, 500; church edifices, 5; value of church property, $35,500. Presbyterian: organizations, 5; membership, 450; church edifices, 4; value of church property, $60,400. Roman Catholic: organizations, 9; membership, 5,000; church edifices, 5; value of church property, $100,000. United Presbyterian: organizations, 2; membership, 130; church edifices, 2; value of church property, $10,000.