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Kansas State Board of Agriculture
First Biennial Report

Marshall County


Map of Marshall County - 1878

FIRST SETTLEMENTS IN THE COUNTY. - Whether any of the half-crazed adventurers of the Old World, in search for gold or the famed youth-restoring waters of those days of discoveries, ever left foot-prints in the soil of what is now Marshall county, is of no consequence to the present generation. Nobody ever knew; nobody will ever care. But the factors of the American Fur Company did, at a very early day, in their trading with the Aborigines, traverse the country often. In 1839, James McCloskey, a Scotchman by birth, went into the Rocky Mountains as an Indian trader, located among the Sioux on the Upper Platte, adopted the Indian habits, and married a Sioux woman. Captain McCloskey remained in the mountains till 1854. On the passage of the Kansas-Nebraska bill, in the spring of 1854, he came down immediately, and settled on the banks of the Big Blue, just below the present city of Marysville. Anticipated, however, was this Rocky Mountain Indian trader in locating here, by F. J. Marshall, by a few months.

Fremont passed this way in 1842 or 1844, and mentions, in his travels, of passing a train or two of emigrants to Oregon. In 1847, the great Mormon exodus from Illinois, opened the way through this county, crossing the Big Blue at the old "Mormon," "Independence," or "California crossing," six miles below the present town of Marysville. During 1847 and 1848, the exiled Latter Day Saints rolled along this route by the thousands, increased during 1849, by the gold discoveries, to tens of thousands. To accommodate this vast mass of moving humanity, Frank Marshall, a Virginian by birth, but now a citizen of Weston, Missouri, came out and established a little ferry across the Blue, remaining here during the season of travel, and then returning to Missouri - coming out in the spring and returning in the fall. In the meantime, Lieutenant Standberry, surveying the route from Fort Leavenworth to the Great Salt Lake, in 1849, located the more practicable crossing of the Blue, six miles higher up. By 1851 and 1852, the upper route became the favorite with the traveling public, whereupon Marshall pulled up stakes at the lower and stuck them down at the upper crossing. From this on, till 1854, during the winter, Marshall was in Missouri, and in summer on the banks of the Blue. Here with a tent pitched, or in a rude cabin, he kept a ferry, had a rude blacksmith shop, and a small stock of goods, of which low grade tobacco and rot-gut whisky were the principal; bought up worn-out oxen, and traded with the Indians.

In the early season of 1854, the country being thrown open to the occupancy of the white man by the passage of the Kansas-Nebraska bill, Marshall brought on his family with him, and settled permanently, as is commonly supposed, the first white man in the county.

In 1855, John D. Wells, with his family, from Kentucky, settled in the southeastern part of the county, on the Vermillion, and near the present village of Barrett. Wells took a claim, permanently settled, and is there now, one of the most successful farmers in the county, as well as a public spirited, patriotic citizen. In the spring of 1855, A. G. Barrett, present County Treasurer, settled on the Vermillion, near Wells. Soon came in Walker and others; a settlement of pioneers was soon there, and civilization found a home on these vast plains, from time immemorial the home of the coyote and the Indian, and the herding ground of the buffalo.

In 1855, a South Carolina colony squatted down at the old Mormon crossing recently abandoned by Marshall. These adventurous colonists laid off a paper town, and called it Palmetto, opening up as a rival, rather, to Marshall, for the trade and commerce of travel. Marshall did the same, which, in honor to his wife, he called Marysville. Here, now, were two little antagonistic towns, with a pretty rough citizenship in each; out on the frontiers, or rather beyond civilization generally. Bad blood soon got up; shot guns were loaded, and bowie knives sharpened. In the absence of civil tribunals, it was the custom in those days to extemporize a border court, and settle disputes a la vigilante. But two communities were at variance, and nobody left to form such a court. The pop of the revolver and the clank of pure steel were familiar sounds, anyhow; to settle this affair in that way was, therefore, the shorter, and, by common consent, the more satisfactory. Marshall, however, was not a man of blood. Keen and shrewd, he brought diplomacy to bear, and succeeded. It was agreed that the Palmetto Company should remove their town site up, and lay right along side of Marshall, that one should be called Marysville, and the other Palmetto, and leave the fates of each to the whim of public sentiment in the future. Marysville is now a flourishing little city, while Palmetto is forgotten.

The reader must not imagine that in all this bad blood politics had anything to do. Not at all. Both parties to the difficulty were on the same side of National politics. One represented South Carolina, the other Old Virginia. It was simply a question of dollars and cents.

By the autumn of 1855, quite a settlement had been formed in and around Marysville, and also one in and about Barrett, and the Vermillion. To meet the demands of this condition of things, a municipal organization was needed, and the county was duly organized in 1855. We have no means of knowing the exact voting strength of the county at the time, but, from data incidentally gathered, it could not have been over sixty. Judge Doniphan was the first Probate Judge. He held his first court on the 10th day of October, of that year. But what business came before him is not left on record. Alexander Clarke was the first Sheriff. Clarke was commissioned in October, 1855, and served till June, 1856, when he was killed by a horsethief whom he was endeavoring to arrest. M. L. Duncan, one of the County Commissioners, was appointed, and served out Clarke's time. James McCloskey was the first County Clerk. W. N. Glenn, John D. Wells and M. L. Duncan were the first County Commissioners. J. D. Brumbaugh was commissioned Notary Public in 1858. This commission is the oldest record in the Recorder's office of the county. Of all these, McCloskey, Duncan, and Wells remain, and are yet citizens of the county. Duncan is now chairman of the Board of County Commissioners, lives in the country, and manages a large farm. Wells is perhaps the heaviest farmer in the county, and McCloskey is a reputable citizen retired measurably from active life. Glenn has sunk out of sight, perhaps dead; and Judge Brumbaugh died a few months ago, universally respected as one of the most brilliant lawyers of the State, and estimable as a man.

A. G. Barrett, who first settled at Barrett, in 1856, after all these years of devotion to the best interests of Kansas, and Marshall county particularly, received an expression of public confidence last November in being elected Treasurer of the county, and will, in a few days now, enter on the discharge of the duties of the office.

SETTLEMENT OF OTHER PARTS OF THE COUNTY. - March, 1857, Smith Martin settled in that section of the county now embraced in the limits of Centre township, and near the centre of the county. Others came in, in a short time, forming the nucleus of a future, prosperous neighborhood. - James Goldsberry and Isabella Fletcher were the first persons married in this section, which occurred some time during the year 1859. - Hazelville was the first post office here, established in 1870, A. W. Thomas, postmaster. This office, subsequently, was called Centreville, and now Reedsville - Hon. Allen Reed, postmaster. - In 1857, Stearns and William Reedy settled on Coon creek, near its mouth, in the southwest corner of the county. About the same time, or soon after, M. T. Bennet settled on Coon creek, a few miles higher up. In a year or two, others came in, making quite a settlement. - The first marriage that took place in what is now Waterville township was that of Jefferson Cox and Mary Elizabeth More, in 1859. - The first birth was Ezekiel, son of Woodford Reedy, November 7, 1858. - The first post office established in this section was Waterville - located at first in a railroad car, afterwards removed into the depot. Fred. Spaulding was the first postmaster.

In 1857, Ambrose, East, Martin and James Shipp, four brothers, settled on the south of the Big Blue, in what is now Blue Rapids township, and not a great way from the present village of Irving. - The first birth in this pioneer settlement was that of Emma Shipp, daughter of one of these brothers, which occurred in the month of October, 1857. - The first marriage was that of Joseph Hahn and Susan Slater, sometime in 1859. - The first post office, at Irving, was established in 1860, M. D. Abbott, postmaster. - The first settlement made in the southeast section of the county, in what is now Noble township, was by Samuel Smith, in 1855. - The first death, of which we have data, was that of an infant of Hugh Morrison, in 1856, or 1857. - The first marriage was that of R. T. Middleton and Ann Blade, in 1859. - In 1863, E. Lewis was appointed the first postmaster here (on Section 11), and the post office called Lanesburg.

In 1857, James Waller settled on Elm creek, in the territory of what is now Blue Rapids City township, three miles northeast of Blue Rapids City. In the summer of that year, Waller, M. L. Duncan and Henry Poor laid off a town on tile south bank of the Big Blue, where the city of Blue Rapids now is. Soon after, Waller took sick and died. Poor became involved in an amorous affair with an officer of the army then encamped at Marysville, and killed him. To save himself from the vengeance of the soldiers, Poor fled the country. Duncan then abandoned the enterprise. The town site slumbered, and the fine water power at the Rapids wasted away till 1870, when a colony from Genessee county, N. Y., dropped down and utilized them.

In the meantime W. B. Thompson settled just above the Rapids in 1858.

About the same time Andrew Scott, Henry Miller and others came in on the north bank of the river; James Lane, a few miles below, James Parker and others, establishing a permanent neighborhood.

Up and down the Big and Little Blue, settlements were made during the years '58 and '59. The Horseshoe, Spring and Walnut creeks were also settled at this time.

Isaac Walker settled on the west fork of the Vermillion in '56 or '57, in the eastern part of the county; Joseph Guittard, in the northeast part in 1858; so that Marshall county was fairly fixed in legal, social and municipal regulations by 1860. In the spring of 1861, the war of the Rebellion came on, and the current of her progress stayed measurably till peace and quietude again brooded over the country.

Population in 1860, 2,280; in 1870, 6,901; increase in ten years, 4,621; population in 1875, 10,822; increase in five years, 3,921; population in 1878, 12,270; increase in eighteen years, 9,990. Rural population, 8,932; city or town population, 3,338; per cent. of rural to city or town population, 72.80.

POPULATION of 1878, by Townships and Cities.
Blue Rapids City 1,116 Blue Rapids 983 Center 490
Elm Creek 311 Franklin 296 Guittard 1,418
Marysville 2,636 Noble 436 Rock 442
Vermillion 1,751 Waterville 1,823 Wells 568

Face of the Country. - Bottom land, 20 per cent.; upland, 80 per cent.; forest (Government survey), 3 per cent.; prairie, 97 per cent. Average width of bottoms, one mile; general surface of the country, undulating; along the Big Blue river, bluffy.

Timber. - Average width of timber belts, one-quarter to one mile. Varieties: principally oak, walnut and cottonwood.

Principal Streams. - Big Blue river, running south; tributaries, Little Blue, Black Vermillion, Walnut, Coon, Fancy, Fawn, Hop, Corndodger, Little Timber, Dog Walk, Elm, Irish, Spring, Game Fork, Horseshoe and other creeks. The county has many good springs; well water obtained at a depth of from 20 to 40 feet.

Coal. - None has been developed.

Building Stone, etc. - An excellent quality of magnesian and blue limestone is found in inexhaustible quantities. Fire clay is reported in abundance, and pottery clay in limited quantities; extensive beds of gypsum exist, and are being utilized at Blue Rapids.

Railroad Connections. - The St. Joseph & Denver City Railroad runs through the county from east to west, a little north of the centre. Principal station, Marysville. The Central Branch Union Pacific Railroad traverses the entire extent of the southern part of the county from east to west. Principal stations: Barrett's, Irving, Blue Rapids and Waterville.

Agricultural Statistics. - Acres in the county, 576,000; taxable acres, 516,146; under cultivation, 118,444.12; cultivated to taxable acres, 22.95 per cent.; increase of cultivated acres during the year, 19,635.62.

STATEMENT showing the Acreage of Field Crops named from 1872 to 1878, inclusive.

CROPS. 1872. 1873. 1874. 1875. 1876. 1877. 1878.
Winter Wheat 2,424.00 2,424.00 4,958.00 5,331.00 3,808.00 1,340.00 2,362.00
Rye 866.00 866.00 764.00 3,503.50 6,026.00 6,394.00 5,374.00
Spring Wheat 8,990.00 14,627.00 25,048.00 27,834.50 31,831.00 21,224.00 37,220.00
Corn 18,234.00 14,073.00 23,493.00 23,910.00 29,657.00 44,360.00 37,469.00
Barley 430.00 380.00 462.00 1,515.25 2,884.00 3,362.00 1,153.00
Oats 5,127.00 5,097.00 6,250.00 8,538.25 8,009.00 7,838.00 8,734.00
Buckwheat 221.00 109.00 37.00 75.50 38.00 61.00 110.00
Irish Potatoes 739.00 619.00 846.00 747.74 831.50 804.00 805.00
Sweet Potatoes 17.00 8.00 5.00 7.50 2.13 3.50 6.37
Sorghum 257.00 151.00 254.00 316.32 312.25 335.00 239.00
Castor Beans 14.25 7.00 22.00 71.00 18.25 9.00 8.00
Cotton 0.40 1.13 7.00 0.75 1.00 0.50 -----
Flax 23.00 20.00 56.00 448.75 86.50 22.00 36.00
Hemp 1.50 11.00 1.00 4.00 5.00 0.50 4.00
Tobacco 6.75 4.50 2.00 5.62 35.50 6.50 11.25
Broom Corn ----- ----- 144.00 459.00 765.25 719.00 730.00
Millet and Hungarian 493.00 594.00 1,171.00 937.50 1,321.25 2,263.00 1,684.00
Timothy Meadow 146.00 148.00 59.00 67.87 206.00 8.50 115.00
Clover Meadow 20.00 20.00 31.00 65.00 167.00 8.00 56.50
Prairie Meadow 13,044.00 24,284.00 2,564.00 1,038.00 453.00 453.00 3,539.00
Timothy Pasture 5.50 ----- 220.00 2.00 8.00 55.00 34.00
Clover Pasture 145.00 ----- ----- 1.00 8.00 8.00 7.00
Blue-Grass Pasture 26.00 26.00 ----- 10.50 35.00 ---- 13.00
Prairie Pasture 4,109.00 7,607.00 5,808.00 8,575.00 13,230.00 9,534.00 18,734.00

Total 55,339.40 71,076.63 72,202.00 83,465.55 99,738.63 98,808.50 118,444.12

Increase in six years, 114 + per cent.
Average increase per annum, 19 + per cent.

RANK of Marshall County in the Crops named below, as to Acreage, and in Cultivated Acreage for the years mentioned in the foregoing table.

CROPS. 1872. 1873. 1874. 1875. 1876. 1877. 1878.

Wheat 5 5 3 4 7 15 12
Corn 29 35 30 33 25 28 30

Total Acreage in all Crops 23 17 20 27 20 27 26

STATEMENT showing the Acres, Product and Value of Principal Crops for 1878, together with the Increase and Decrease as compared with 1877.

FROM 1877.
IN 1878.
FROM 1877.
IN 1878.
FROM 1877.

Winter Wheat - bu. 2,362.00 1,022.00 in. 47,240.00 32,500.00 in. $29,761.20 $15,021.20 in.
Rye - bu. 5,374.00 1,020.00 de. 123,602.00 2,116.00 in. 37,080.60 634.80 in.
Spring Wheat - bu. 37,220.00 15,996.00 in. 483,860.00 123,052.00 in. 261,284.40 27,362.00 de.
Corn - bu. 37,469.00 6,891.00 de. 1,611,167.00 296,313.00 de. 290,010.06 129,635.54 de.
Barley - bu. 1,153.00 2,209.00 de. 27,672.00 49,654.00 de. 9,131.76 17,932.34 de.
Oats - bu. 8,734.00 896.00 in. 393,030.00 95,186.00 in. 58,954.50 14,277.90 in.
Buckwheat - bu. 110.00 49.00 in. 2,090.00 1,419.00 in. 1,672.00 1,135.20 in.
Irish Potatoes - bu. 805.00 1.00 in. 72,450.00 20,190.00 in. 18,112.50 15,856.50 de.
Sweet Potatoes - bu. 6.37 2.87 in. 828.10 443.10 in. 828.10 443.10 in.
Sorghum - gall. 239.00 96.00 de. 27,485.00 11,040.00 de. 13,742.50 5,520.00 de.
Castor Beans - bu. 8.00 1.00 de. 96.00 3.00 de. 120.00 21.00 in.
Cotton - lbs. ----- .50 de. ----- 85.00    ----- 8.50 de.
Flax - bu. 36.00 14.00 in. 360.00 140.00 in. 360.00 129.00 in.
Hemp - lbs. 4.00 3.50 in. 3,680.00 3,220.00 in. 220.80 193.20 in.
Tobacco - lbs. 11.25 4.75 in. 8,325.00 3,515.00 in. 832.50 351.50 in.
Broom Corn - lbs. 730.00 11.00 in. 584,000.00 8,800.00 in. 21,900.00 330.00 in.
Millet and Hungarian - tons 1,684.00 579.00 de. 5,052.00 605.50 de. 20,208.00 2,422.00 de.
Timothy Meadow - tons 115.00 106.50 in. 172.50 159.75 in. 862.50 798.75 in.
Clover Meadow - tons 56.50 48.50 in. 113.00 97.00 in. 565.00 485.00 in.
Prairie Meadow - tons 3,539.00 3,086.00 in. 5,309.00 4,629.50 in. 15,927.00 13,888.50 in.
Timothy Pasture acres 34.00 21.00 de. ---- ---- ---- ----
Clover Pasture - acres 7.00 1.00 de. ---- ---- ---- ----
Blue-Grass Pasture - acres 13.00 13.00 in. ---- ---- ---- ----
Prairie Pasture - acres 18,734.00 9,200.00 in. ---- ---- ---- ----

Total 118,444.12 19,635.62 in. ----- ----- 781,573.42 151,027.73 de.

AN ABUNDANT YIELD. - Statement of William Murphy, Irving:

Winter Wheat. - White Michigan variety: I planted twelve acres in Section 34, Township 5, Range 8, August 28, and harvested it July 1. The ground was rolling upland. The seed was drilled in on fresh ploughing, and yielded 42 bushels to the acre, at a cost of $8.87 per acre. The land was well pulverized before sowing. "Crops drilled in east and west, in my experience, do the best."

A GOOD YIELD. - Statement of J. L. Hodges, Frankfort:

Winter Wheat. - May variety: On the 20th of September I planted sixteen acres in Section 9, Township 4, Range 9, the soil being black loam, upland; I harvested the crop June 27, the yield being 26 1/2 bushels to the acre, at a cost of $5.50 per acre. The crop was sown after oats, the ground being ploughed and harrowed, the seed drilled in, 1 1/2 bushels to the acre, and harrowed after the drill.

A LARGE YIELD. - Statement of S. B. Wallace, of Vermillion:

Winter Wheat. - I sowed sixteen acres of wheat on Section 11, Township 4, Range 10, on the 16th of September, and harvested it on the 20th of June. The ground was second bottom. The yield was 30 bushels to the acre, at a cost of 25 cents per bushel.

I also had an excellent crop of corn and potatoes. The crop of corn was 26 acres, planted April 5, which yielded 65 bushels to the acre, at a cost of 10 cents per bushel. The potatoes yielded 300 bushels to the acre, costing 12 cents per bushel.

Value of Garden Produce, Poultry and Eggs Sold during the Year. - Garden produce, $2,667; poultry and eggs, $5,678.

Old Corn on Hand. - Old corn on hand March 1, 1878, 470,542 bushels, or an average of 192 bushels to each family.

Dairy Products. - Number of cheese factories, 2; capital invested, $150; manufactured in 1875, 28,510 lbs.; in 1878, 74,800 lbs.; increase, 46,290 lbs. Butter manufactured in 1875, 305,147 lbs.; in 1878, 325,166 lbs.; increase, 20,019 lbs.

Farm Animals. - Number of horses, in 1877, 4,530; in 1878, 5,304; increase, 774. Mules and asses, in 1877, 353; in 1878, 620; increase, 267. Milch cows, in 1877, 6,293; in 1878, 7,172; increase, 879. Other cattle, in 1877, 10,746; in 1878, 13,259; increase, 2,513. Sheep, in 1877, 1,916; in 1878, 3,426; increase, 1,510. Swine, in 1877, 8,241; in 1878, 26,651; increase, 18,410.

Sheep Killed by Dogs. - Number of sheep killed by dogs, 119; value of sheep killed by dogs, $357.

Wool. - Clip of 1877, 5,056 lbs.

Value of Animals Slaughtered. - Value of animals slaughtered and sold for slaughter during the year, $192,725.28.

Horticulture. - Number of acres nurseries, 438. Number of trees in bearing: apple, 8,170; pear, 1,149; peach, 93,295; plum, 492; cherry, 4,218. Number of trees not in bearing: apple, 46,904; pear, 890; peach, 38,699; plum, 1,409; cherry, 9,065.

Herd Law. - There is no herd law in force in the county.

Fences. - Stone, 6,893 rods; cost, $12,062.75. Rail, 49,213 rods; cost, $66,437.55. Board, 31,338 rods; cost, $44,813.34. Wire, 86,874 rods; cost, $63,418.02. Hedge, 92,325 rods; cost, $60,011.25. Total rods of fence, 266,643; total cost, $246,742.91.

Apiaculture. - Number of stands of bees, 120; pounds of honey, 2,454; wax, 5.

Value of Agricultural Implements. - Amount invested in agricultural implements, $60,186.

Manufactures. - Blue Rapids City township: water-power flouring mill; water-power paper mill, capital, $12,000; water-power woolen mill; water-power foundry, capital, $2,000; water-power gypsum mill. Blue Rapids township: water-power flouring mill, capital, $20,000. Guittard township: steam cheese factory. Marysville township: water-power flouring mill and elevator, capital, $110,000; steam-power wagon manufactory. Vermillion township: steam saw mill, capital, $300; steam flouring mills, capital, $1,400. Waterville township: water-power flouring mills, 2, combined capital, $50,000; cheese factory, capital, $150; cabinet manufactory, capital, $2,500.

Valuation and Indebtedness. - Assessed valuation of personal property, $495,179; railroad property, $331,824.40; total assessed valuation of all property, $2,991,185.40; true valuation of all property, $4,985,309. Total indebtedness of county, township, city and school districts, $105,664.62; per cent. of indebtedness to assessed valuation, .04-.

Newspaper History. - The Palmetto Kansan, the first paper printed in the county, was established December 18, 1857, at Marysville. The material of the establishment was formerly employed in the publication of the Lecompton Union, and the office was owned by the "Palmetto Town Company," composed of F. J. Marshall, James S. Magill and others. J. E. Clardy was employed as editor and publisher. The paper was a Democratic, Pro-Slavery organ. Mr. Clardy continued the publication for seven months, when the paper suspended. In 1858, an effort was made to resuscitate it, under the name of the Marysville Democrat, by a Mr. Childers, but the experiment was short-lived.

The Democratic Platform was first issued at Marysville, in the early part of 1859, by P. H. Peters and R. S. Newell, and in December of that year, E. C. Manning became one of the proprietors. In May, following, Mr. Manning obtained the entire control of the paper, changing its politics to Republican, but retaining its original name. July 31, 1860, the building in which the paper was printed, was entirely destroyed, and the material scattered by a violent tornado. In the fall of the same year, Peters gathered the scattered fragments together, and resumed the publication of the Platform, continuing it until the breaking out of the war, in 1861.

The Big Blue Union was founded upon the ruins of the Platform establishment, in 1861, by G. D. Swearingen. It was a Republican paper, and was continued by Mr. Swearingen until August, 1863, when it was purchased by E. C. Manning, who had returned from the army. He conducted the Union until December, 1865, when the publication was suspended, and in June, 1866, he removed the material to Manhattan.

In July or August, 1862, P. H. Peters purchased the press and fixtures of the Palermo Ledger, removed them to Marysville, and established the Constitutional Gazetteer. The office was destroyed by a squad of Union soldiers soon after, and the proprietor was lodged in the guard-house at Fort Leavenworth.

In 1864, the Enterprise was started at Marysville, by Thos. W. Baker, P. H. Peters and J. S. Magill. It was Independent in politics, with strong Democratic leanings. The paper continued under these auspices until the summer of 1867, when Peters became sole proprietor, and the Enterprise was changed to a Republican paper. It continued until some time in 1868, when it was sold to George C. Crowther, who removed the establishment to Irving.

In the fall of 1869, the Locomotive was started at Marysville by the irrepressible Peters, who continued it until some time in 1870, when he sold out to Thomas Hughes, who changed the name to the Marshall County News, by whom it is still conducted as a Republican journal.

In 1868, George C. Crowther removed the Enterprise office from Marysville to Irving, and commenced the publication of the Blue Valley Record, Republican. While Crowther was serving as Secretary of the Senate, at Topeka, the paper was run by H. E. Smith, now of the Concordia Empire. The paper, however, was continued but for a few months, when its publication was suspended.

The Waterville Telegraph was established by Frank A. Root, now of the North Topeka Times. The first number was issued January 1, 1870. Mr. Root continued to publish the paper till August 5, 1870, when West E. Wilkinson, now of the Seneca Courier, became a partner. On the first of January, 1871, F. G. Adams and W. P. Campbell, now of the Wamego Tribune, succeeded Root & Wilkinson in the management of the Telegraph. In February, 1871, Campbell sold his interest to E. N. Emmons, who, with Judge Adams, controlled the paper till January 26, 1872, when he dropped out, leaving Adams to the sole control until April 26, 1872, when Thomas Hughes, now of the Marysville News, became a partner. On the 30th of August, 1872, Adams & Hughes sold out to A. M. Baker, since deceased. On the 13th of June, 1873, W. P. Campbell purchased the paper from Baker, conducting it till April 1, 1875, when W. H. Smallwood purchased an interest. On the 4th of August, 1875, Mr. Campbell sold his interest to O. M. Osbun. Smallwood & Osbun continued the publication of the Telegraph until December 17, 1875, when Mr. Campbell again came into the ownership of the paper, and continued to publish it till March 30, 1877, when it was sold to J. W. Sharrard & Co., who sold the material to J. E. Reece & Co. They changed the name of the paper to Blue Valley Telegraph, and also its politics, which had always been firmly Republican, to Democratic, and still continue to issue the paper. A. Sausel, now teaching in Washington county, was associated with Mr. Campbell in conducting the Telegraph for a few months in 1873.

In the latter part of June, 1871, W. P. Campbell and O. E. Tibbetts purchased the material of the Netawaka Herald, and removed it to Blue Rapids, where, on the 4th of July, 1871, they issued the first number of the Blue Rapids Times. On the 8th of July, 1872, Campbell sold his interest to Frank Hall, who remained in the concern but a few weeks, when he retired, leaving Mr. Tibbetts sole proprietor. The latter conducted the paper till October, 1877, when E. M. Brice became a partner, and on the 3d of October, 1878, Mr. Tibbetts retired, leaving Mr. Brice alone in the office, which he still controls, and publishes the Times.

In 1875, John Thomson became the owner of the material of the defunct Record establishment at Irving, and started the Blue Valley Gazette, Republican, which is still conducted by him.

The Frankfort Record was established July 25, 1876, by Campbell & Bros. On the 26th of October, 1876, J. B. Smith & Son bought the paper, and have since continued to publish the Record, which is Independent in politics.

Schools. - Number of organized districts, 88; school population, 4,618 ; average salary of teachers, per month, males, $37.39; females, $29.14. School houses built during 1878, 2; frame, 1; stone, 1. Total number of school houses 83; log, 3; frame 62; brick, 2; stone, 16. Value of all school property, $83,159. No report of school grounds having been ornamented.

Churches. - Baptist: organizations, 5; membership, 347; church edifices, 2; value of church property, $3,500. Congregational: organizations, 1; membership, 53, Episcopal: organizations, 4; membership, 88; church edifices, 1; value of church property, $2,500. Lutheran: organizations, 7; membership, 300; church edifices, 3; value of church property, $4,000. Methodist Episcopal: organizations, 19; membership, 540; church edifices, 4; value of church property, $13,850. Presbyterian: organizations, 6; membership, 225; church edifices, 4; value of church property, $18,600. Roman Catholic: organizations, 4; membership, 600; church edifices, 2; value of church property, $1,000.