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Kansas State Board of Agriculture
First Biennial Report

Wyandotte County


Map of Wyandotte County - 1878

Moses Grinter was the first white settler in the bounds of what is now Wyandotte county. He located near where the station of Secundine now stands, in 1831, and lived there till his death in the fall of 1878.

In May, 1843, Silas Armstrong and George Clark, with their families, and Miss Jane Tilles, now Mrs. William Cook, came to this section to select a reservation for the Wyandottes, who were to be removed from Ohio. Mr. Armstrong was also to build a trading store for the nation, which he did. The town of Armstrong was named after this Silas Armstrong.

In May, 1832, a mission school was established among the Delaware Indians, near the white church, by Rev. Thomas Johnson, a Methodist minister.

In 1837, John G. Pratt located on Section 10, Town. 30, Range 23, about 16 miles west of Wyandotte City, where he still resides. He established a Baptist mission among the Delawares. Mrs. Pratt is still living at the old place, and has never visited either Wyandotte or Leavenworth. Mr. Pratt has published several hymn books in the Delaware language, one of which was as printed at the Wyandotte Herald office. Mr. Pratt was appointed agent for the Delawares by President Lincoln. One of his sons married a daughter of Charles Journeycake, a well known Delaware chief. His oldest daughter is the wife of Col. Sam. Black, of Leavenworth.

On the 31st of July, 1843, the first party of the Wyandottes came to this section, and, with them, a number of whites; of these, there are still living, Mrs. Lucy B. Armstrong, Miss Anna H. Ladd and Mrs. Lydia B. Walker. Mrs. Wm. Cook, who came in the May previous, is also still alive.

Hiram N. Northrup, now a leading banker and prominent citizen of Wyandotte, located here in 1844. He married Miss Margaret Clark. This marriage was the first in the county, and was celebrated at the Methodist Episcopal parsonage, by Rev. James Wheeler. Miss Clark was a member of the Wyandotte nation, and, by this marriage, Mr. Northrup was adopted as a member of that nation, and was one of the most prominent and trusted men in this section.

In 1855, the Wyandottes made a treaty with the Government, by which their lands were divided in severalty, and most of them became citizens, the heads of families being allowed to sell their lands; as soon as this was done, white settlers came in rapidly.

On the 2d of September, 1854, a convention was held at Wyandotte, on the spot where Dunning Hall now stands, at which a provisional government was formed for the Territory. At this convention, William Walker, a Wyandotte Chief, was appointed Provisional Governor; Matthew R. Walker, Probate Judge, and George I. Clarke, Secretary. Col. Russell Garrett and Isaiah Walker are the only delegates to that convention now known to be living.

On the 8th of April, 1856, two churches, which had been built under the auspices of the Methodist church, at Wyandotte, were burned down. Mrs. Lucy B. Armstrong was teaching a school in one of these churches at the time. The first school opened in the county was taught by John B. Armstrong, in a building standing on the east side of Fourth street, between Kansas and Nebraska avenues, in Wyandotte.

The first frame building in the county was the Methodist parsonage, erected in 1844, in the northern portion of Wyandotte City. Its first occupant was Rev. James Wheeler.

The first mill in the county was erected in 1852, by Mathias Splitlog. It was run by horse power, and was located where the residence of the late Hon. S. A. Cobb stands, on what is called Splitlog's hill.

The first jail in the county was erected by the Wyandottes, near the Council house, in 1848. Its first occupant was locked up for being drunk. In those days, when a woman got drunk her head was shaved; while a man was imprisoned.

Early in the spring of 1857, George W. Veale, now of Topeka; V. J. Lane, now editor of the Wyandotte Herald; Charles Robinson, now of Lawrence; A. D. Richardson, author of "Beyond the Mississippi;" John M. Walden, now agent of the M. E. Book Concern, at Cincinnati; S. C. Smith, who was private secretary of Gov. Robinson; P. T. Colby, appointed U. S. Marshal by President Buchanan; Fielding Johnson, agent for the Delawares; Alfred Gray, who was the first Mayor of Quindaro; M. B. Newman, Perley Pike, Charles Chadwick, Morris Sherman and Owen C. Bassett, located at Quindaro. At about the same time, Col. Dan Killin, now of Miami county; Dr. F. Speck, at present Mayor of the city; E. L. Buesche, John E. Zeitz, Hester A. Halford, Mrs. J. W. Huskins, Nicholas McAlpin, Dr. J. P. Root, Col. S. W. Eldridge, L. H. Wood, Thomas J. Barker, John M. Funk, M. W. Delahay, Wm. Y. Roberts, N. A. Rheinecker, Col. J. R. Parr, C. S. Glick, George D. B. Bowling, Joseph Hanford, Dr. G. B. Wood and others, settled at Wyandotte.

The first postmaster at Wyandotte was Thomas J. Barker; he used to bring the mail on his back from Kansas City to his office. There have been only four postmasters in the city, altogether. These were Mr. Barker, R. B. Taylor, E. T. Vedder, and the present incumbent, A. D. Downs, who was appointed by President Johnson.

A steam ferry was established at Quindaro in 1857, and one at Wyandotte in 1858. Neither of these are now in existence.

The first steam flouring mill was built in 1858, by McAlpine & Washington.

Silas Armstong and Matthew R. Walker erected the first brick buildings in Wyandotte: the first, at the corner of Minnesota and Fifth streets, afterwards the Eldridge House, which was burned in 1865; the other is still standing on Third street.

The first bridge built across the Kaw river was erected in 1858, by private subscription; it was located about three miles above Wyandotte, and cost $15,000. In 1860, a tornado passed over this section, which tore out one span of this bridge, and the remainder soon disappeared.

In 1859, Wyandotte county was formed from territory belonging previously to Leavenworth and Johnson counties, and the first election under the new organization was held on the 20th of February of that year, at which J. W. Johnson was elected Probate Judge, Marshall A. Garrett, County Clerk; W. L. McMath, County Attorney; Samuel E. Forsythe, Sheriff; Robert Robitaille, County Treasurer; V. J. Lane, Register of Deeds; J. B. Wilburn, Superintendent of Public Instruction; Cyrus L. Gorton, Surveyor.

The first bank in the county was established by Davis & Post, in 1857. It was called the Exchange Bank. The first store established after the county was open to settlement, was by Barker & Walker.

In February, 1857, Colby & Parker opened the first hotel in the county; it was at Quindaro, in a building five stories high, and 60 by 80 feet.

The first brick church built in the county, after it was opened for settlement was erected at Quindaro by the Methodists in 1857.

The first survey for a railroad was made from Quindaro to Lawrence under the charter of the Missouri River & Rocky Mountain Railroad Company. The first grading for a railroad in Kansas was done at Wyandotte on the Kansas Valley Railroad. This was about twenty feet higher than the present road bed of the Kansas Pacific. The Kansas Pacific Railroad was put in operation in 1863. The first locomotive was called the Wyandotte. The Missouri River Railroad was put in operation in 1866.

In 1867, the county built a fine wooden bridge across the Kaw about two miles above the town of Armstong, at a cost of $165,000. There is also a fine iron bridge across the Kaw, connecting Wyandotte with Kansas City, Kansas, which cost $62,500. A street railway from the center of Wyandotte City to the State line of Missouri, a mile and a half long, was put in operation in 1873.

The convention that framed the present State constitution met at Wyandotte, July 29, 1859. The hall in which its meetings were held was afterwards used as quarters for the first Kansas regiment raised for the late war. It was a four-story building. The regiment moved out of it at half past ten on the morning of June 1, 1861; at twelve o'clock the same day the building tumbled into a heap of ruins. At the time it fell, Capt. James H. Harris was in it, with nineteen recruits, some of whom were so seriously injured that they afterwards died, though none were killed outright.

For the last five years, the growth of the county has been a substantial one, and the improvements of the solid character needed by its rapidly increasing business.

Population in 1860, 2,609; in 1870, 10,015; increase in ten years, 7,406; population in 1875, 12,362; increase in five years, 2,347; population in 1878, 13,161; increase in eighteen years, 10,552. Rural population, 6,449; city or town population, 6,712; per cent. of rural to city or town population, 49.

POPULATION of 1878, by Townships and Cities.
Delaware 970 Kansas City 1,412 Prairie 993
Quindaro 1,901 Shawnee 2,046 Wyandotte 1,630
Wyandotte City 4,209 ----- ----- ----- -----

Face of the Country. - Bottom land, 20 per cent.; upland, 80 per cent.; forest (Government survey), 25 per cent.; prairie, 75 per cent. Average width of bottoms, one to two miles; general surface of the country, undulating and bluffy.

Timber. - Timber abounds to a greater or less extent throughout the county; the entire county was formerly heavily timbered, except the extreme northern limit. Varieties: cottonwood, walnut, oak, hickory, sycamore, pecan, hackberry, etc.

Principal Streams. - The Missouri forms the northeastern boundary of the county, flowing in an easterly and southerly direction; the Kansas river forms part of the southern boundary, then flows north and east into the Missouri at Wyandotte; each has numerous tributaries well distributed through the county. The county abounds in splendid springs; good well water obtained at a depth of from 20 to 50 feet.

Coal.- For the object of testing the practicability of reaching coal at Wyandotte, boring was commenced in 1875, under the direction of a company organized for that purpose. The diameter of the bore is 4-1/2 inches. At the depth of 250 feet, gas was struck. A constant issue of gas has escaped since it was reached, in May, 1875. It is estimated that 10,000 cubic feet of gas escape hourly, affording 240,000 feet every 24 hours; a sufficient quantity, it is estimated, to light a city of double the population of both Wyandotte and Kansas City. The boring has reached salt water, and the escaping gas forces up a constant stream of this water to the height of from 12 to 15 feet. The gas roars like the escape of steam from an engine, and when ignited, as it has been at night, a continual column of flame, of several feet in diameter, is seen shooting into the air to the height of from 30 to 40 feet. This gas has been, as yet, utilized only in an experimental way. A two-inch pipe conducts a sufficient quantity of it to the house of a Mr. Wilderman, to supply all needed light and fuel. The engine which is used in continuing the boring for coal is constantly run by the use of this gas as its only fuel. The gas burns with a strong, clear, white flame, and is free from sulphurous smell. The salt water yields 4-1/4 ounces of salt per gallon of water; the salt being free from impurities. At the depth of 500 feet, coal had not yet been reached.

Building Stone, etc. - Fine quarries of white magnesian limestone extend for five miles along the Kansas river - it is similar to the Cottonwood Falls stone; also, an excellent quality of blue limestone for building purposes. The abutments and piers of the Kansas Pacific Railway bridges built the present season near Wyandotte are constructed of this stone.

Railroad Connections. - The Kansas Pacific Railway runs through the county, following the north bank of the Kansas river; principal stations, Wyandotte, Armstrong and Edwardsville. The Missouri River Railroad (an extension of the Missouri Pacific Railroad), follows the south bank of the Missouri river to Leavenworth and Atchison; principal stations, Wyandotte, Quindaro, Pomeroy, Barker's Tank and Connor.

Agricultural Statistics. - Acres in the county, 97,920; taxable acres, 90,577; under cultivation, 43,281.12; cultivated to taxable acres, 47.78 per cent.; increase of cultivated acres during the year, 3,525.87.

LARGE YIELD. - Statement by J. H. Hollingsworth, Connor Station:

Potatoes. - I planted one acre of rich sandy upland with Climax potatoes, in the middle of April. The land is in Section 13, Township 10, Range 23. The crop was ploughed twice and hoed once, being planted in drills about 12 inches in the row and 3 feet the other way. I harvested them from the 1st to the 15th of September, the produce of the acre being 200 bushels; the cost of producing being $4.50.

Value of Garden Produce, Poultry and Eggs Sold during the Year. - Garden produce, $17,784; poultry and eggs, $7,404.

STATEMENT showing the Acreage of Field Crops named from 1872 to 1878, inclusive.

CROPS. 1872. 1873. 1874. 1875. 1876. 1877. 1878.
Winter Wheat 2,036.00 2,034.00 4,747.00 700.00 5,411.00 8,787.00 12,795.00
Rye 180.00 280.00 233.00 72.00 681.00 722.00 239.00
Spring Wheat 54.00 183.00 173.00 ----- 4.00 20.00 18.00
Corn 15,540.00 15,929.00 14,266.00 25,078.00 22,837.00 16,983.00 17,476.00
Barley 28.00 63.00 60.00 ----- 75.00 46.00 15.00
Oats 2,477.00 2,742.00 2,340.00 145.00 2,939.00 1,980.00 2,431.00
Buckwheat 111.00 16.00 2.00 911.50 60.00 96.00 2.00
Irish Potatoes 917.00 1,264.00 1,241.00 1,249.00 1,609.75 3,006.00 1,323.00
Sweet Potatoes 16.00 41.00 95.00 88.58 76.37 107.00 70.12
Sorghum 45.00 36.00 90.00 114.00 200.50 169.00 91.50
Castor Beans 2.00 0.50 16.00 2.50 32.75 8.00 1.00
Cotton ----- 0.25 1.50 0.25 2.37 ----- -----
Flax ----- 5.00 0.75 ----- 56.75 ----- 8.00
Hemp 437.00 256.50 49.00 12.00 171.00 277.00 126.50
Tobacco 24.00 45.75 82.00 9.75 67.02 26.25 19.25
Broom Corn ----- ----- 47.00 85.00 74.90 80.00 33.50
Millet and Hungarian 228.00 378.00 808.00 952.00 1,120.50 487.00 544.00
Timothy Meadow 591.00 591.00 918.00 290.00 528.00 569.00 1,054.50
Clover Meadow 664.00 663.00 1,021.00 275.00 242.25 598.00 1,272.50
Prairie Meadow 1,119.00 1,836.00 316.00 1,051.00 1,013.00 890.00 579.00
Timothy Pasture 211.00 18.00 152.00 124.00 44.00 148.00 284.00
Clover Pasture 300.00 283.00 466.00 220.00 138.00 177.00 790.50
Blue-Grass Pasture 1,807.00 1,442.00 780.00 11,063.00 3,931.00 3,548.00 2,359.75
Prairie Pasture 2,949.00 2,949.00 1,556.00 982.00 981.00 1,031.00 1,748.00

Total 29,736.00 31,056.00 29,460.25 43,424.58 42,296.16 39,755.25 43,281.12

Increase in six years, 46-per cent.
Average increase per annum, 7.67-per cent.

RANK of Wyandotte County in the Crops named below, as to Acreage, and in Cultivated Acreage for the years mentioned in the foregoing table.

CROPS. 1872. 1873. 1874. 1875. 1876. 1877. 1878.

Wheat 44 48 52 62 51 38 43
Corn 30 32 44 31 35 53 54
Total Acreage in all Crops 40 37 47 47 50 56 57

STATEMENT showing the Acres, Product and Value of Principal Crops for 1878, together with the Increase and Decrease as compared with 1877.

FROM 1877.
IN 1878.
FROM 1877.
IN 1878.
FROM 1877.

Winter Wheat - bu. 12,795.00 4,008.00 in. 191,925.00 68,907.00 in. $134,347.50 11,329.50 in.
Rye - bu. 239.00 483.00 de. 4,302.00 7,972.00 de. 1,290.60 3,619.00 de.
Spring Wheat - bu. 18.00 2.00 de. 180.00 20.00 in. 108.00 36.00 de.
Corn - bu. 17,476.00 493.00 in. 699,040.00 53,686.00 in. 139,808.00 27,984.04 de.
Barley - bu. 15.00 31.00 de. 270.00 650.00 de. 135.00 233.00 de.
Oats - bu. 2,431.00 451.00 in. 72,930.00 13,530.00 in. 16,044.60 5,352.60 in.
Buckwheat - bu. 2.00 94.00 de. 44.00 1,300.00 de. 35.20 1,040.00 de.
Irish Potatoes - bu. 1,323.00 1,683.00 de. 132,300.00 78,120.00 de. 52,920.00 136,458.00 de.
Sweet Potatoes - bu. 70.12 36.88 de. 9,816.80 6,233.20 de. 7,853.44 8,196.56 de.
Sorghum - gall. 91.50 77.50 de. 10,522.50 8,912.50 de. 5,261.25 4,456.25 de.
Castor Beans - bu. 1.00 7.00 de. 11.00 85.00 de. 13.75 82.25 de.
Cotton - lbs. ----- ----- ----- ----- ----- -----
Flax - bu. 8.00 8.00 in. 88.00 88.00 in. 88.00 88.00 in.
Hemp - lbs. 126.50 150.50 de. 116,380.00 138,460.00 de. 6,982.80 8,307.60 de.
Tobacco - lbs. 19.25 7.00 de. 14,245.00 5,180.00 de. 1,424.50 518.00 de.
Broom Corn - lbs. 33.50 46.50 de. 26,800.00 37,200.00 de. 1,005.00 1,395.00 de.
Millet and Hungarian - tons 544.00 57.00 in. 1,632.00 414.50 in. 11,424.00 2,901.50 in.
Timothy Meadow - tons 1,054.50 485.50 in. 1,581.75 728.25 in. 12,654.00 5,826.00 in.
Clover Meadow - tons 1,272.50 674.50 in. 1,908.75 1,011.75 in. 15,270.00 8,094.00 in.
Prairie Meadow - tons 579.00 311.50 de. 753.00 404.00 de. 5,271.00 2,828.00 de.
Timothy Pasture acres 284.00 136.00 in. ----- ----- ----- -----
Clover Pasture - acres 790.50 613.50 in. ----- ----- ----- -----
Blue-Grass Pasture - acres 2,359.75 188.25 de. ----- ----- ----- -----
Prairie Pasture - acres 1,748.00 717.00 in. ----- ----- ----- -----

Total 43,281.12 3,525.87 in. ----- ----- $411,936.64 $161,562.10 de.

Old Corn on Hand. - Old corn on hand March 1, 1878, 141,496 bushels, or an average of 54 bushels to each family.

Dairy Products. - Cheese manufactured in 1875, 50 lbs.; in 1878, 2,500 lbs.; increase, 2,450 lbs. Butter manufactured in 1875, 94,408 lbs.; in 1878, 83,588 lbs.; decrease, 10,820 lbs.

Farm Animals. - Number of horses, in 1877, 2,550; in 1878, 2,181; decrease, 369. Mules and asses, in 1877, 525; in 1878, 544; increase, 19. Milch cows, in 1877, 2,014; in 1878, 1,858; decrease, 156. Other cattle, in 1877, 2,918; in 1878, 3,109; increase, 191. Sheep, in 1877, 1,490; in 1878, 689; decrease, 801. Swine, in 1877, 10,681; in 1878, 13,228; increase, 2,547

Sheep Killed by Dogs. - Number of sheep killed by dogs, 47; value of sheep killed by dogs, $141.

Wool. - Clip of 1877, 1,106 pounds.

Value of Animals Slaughtered. - Value of animals slaughtered and sold for slaughter during the year, $111,800.

Horticulture. - Number of acres nurseries, 7; number of trees in bearing: apple, 51,932; pear, 1,247; peach, 18,895; plum, 940; cherry, 6,456. Number of trees not in bearing: apple, 57,396; pear, 1,440; peach, 13,109; plum, 1,243; cherry, 580.

Herd Law. - Herd law not in force. A letter says: "It would save an immense amount of fencing. Even in this timbered country we can not afford to maintain fences."

Fences. - Stone, 1,556 rods; cost, $3,112. Rail, 243,739 rods; cost, $280,299.85. Board, 32,056 rods; cost, $44,878.40. Wire, 3,666 rods; cost, $2,566.20. Hedge, 37,563 rods; cost, $22,537.80. Total rods of fence, 318,580; total cost, $353,394.25.

Apiaculture. - Number of stands of bees, 787; pounds of honey, 14,961; wax, 826.

Value of Agricultural Implements. - Amount invested in agricultural implements, $17,617.

Manufactures. - Delaware township: steam grist mill, capital, $1,200. Kansas City, Kansas: pork packing establishment, steam-power, capital, $50,000; beef and pork packing house, steam-power, capital, $1,000,000; steam glue factory, capital, $4,000; carpenter and joiner shops, 5, capital, $100,000; cooper shops, 7, capital, $500,000; soap factory; grist mill, capital, $10,000; saddle tree factory, capital, $2,000; ice houses, 11, capital, $50,000. Prairie township: cheese factory. Quindaro township: steam saw mill, capital, $600; steam grist mill, capital, $10,000. Shawnee township: steam saw mills, 2, capital, $800; steam-power rolling mill, capital, $80,000. Wyandotte township: steam saw mill, capital, $1,000; steam saw and grist mill, capital, $700; steam grist mill, capital, $1,500; steam-power machine shops, capital, $120,000. City of Wyandotte: steam saw mill, capital, $2,500; harness manufactory, capital, $500; wagon factory, capital, $1,500; cigar manufactories, 2, capital, $6,000; plough manufactory, steam-power, capital, $1,000; steam grist mills, 3, combined capital, $40,000; broom factory, capital, $1,200; vinegar factory, capital, $3,500; tinware manufactory, capital, $2,000. Shawnee township: steam saw mills, 2, capital invested, $1,000; steam-power rolling mill, capital, $80,000.

THE KANSAS ROLLING MILLS. - These mills are located at Rosedale, in Wyandotte county, about four and one-half miles from Kansas City. They were built in 1875, the machinery being brought from Decatur, Illinois, and operations were commenced in November, 1875. There is now employed a force of 275 men; but the pay-rolls frequently show as many as 325 names. The works are under the immediate direction of Ira Harris, Manager and Treasurer of the company. A. B. Stone, of New York City, is President; W. H. Harris, of Cleveland, Ohio, Vice-President; E. V. Wilkes, Secretary, and D. S. Mathias, Superintendent. The mills consume an average of 3,600 bushels of coal each day, and produce, when running full time, 268,800 pounds of rails, weighing 56 pounds to the yard. The same heating also produces 55,000 pounds of splice bars, and 80 kegs of railroad spikes, weighing 150 pounds to the keg. There is also made at these mills, wrought iron draw-heads, and the company is arranging to put in an additional train of rolls. At present they have three roll trains - one 21 inches, one 18 inches, and one of 12 inches in diameter; the new roll will be nine inches in diameter. They have nine large furnaces, which can be used for either the 18 or 21-inch train; one furnace for the steam hammer, and one for heating spike rods. There are five steam engines in use, and three steam pumps. The main engine has a 32-inch cylinder and a 36-inch stroke; its fly wheel weighs 30 tons. The wages paid the employes range from one dollar to eight dollars per day. The skilled workmen are paid by the piece, the scale being fixed at so much per ton of manufactured goods. The pay rolls vary from $8,000 to $20,000 per month. The amount paid for wages for the seven months ending February 1, 1878, was $69,931.15. The value of new rails made during the same period was $366,246.88. To produce this quantity of rails required 11,100 tons of iron. The average daily consumption of iron is 130 tons, of 2,240 pounds each. In 1878, there were manufactured 1,350 tons of splice bars, valued at about $50,000. About 15,000 tons of new rails were turned out during the last year, the aggregate value of which was nearly $500,000.

The Kansas City Car Wheel Company, which has its mills at Rosedale, was organized in May, 1877. Its officers are: O. D. Moore, of Rosedale, President and Manager; W. H. Green, of St. Louis, Mo., Vice-President. At present this company can turn out about 300 car wheels and 150 tons of other castings for railroad machinery and ore crushers per month. It employs now from 18 to 30 men, one-third of whom are moulders. The pay-roll is from $750 to $900 per month.

The Kansas Iron Fence Company is also located at Rosedale. This company commenced work in June, 1878. Ira Harris, President; E. V. Wilkes, Secretary and Treasurer; and J. R. Brown, Superintendent. As now working, it employs 19 men and boys, paying about $500 per month. Its capacity is now 800 pounds of barbed wire, and the iron posts, braces, stays, etc., for the same per day; but steam engines now contracted for will increase its capacity to 1,900 pounds of wire, or two miles of iron and steel fence complete, each day.

Valuation and Indebtedness. - Assessed valuation of personal property, $194,181; railroad property, $514,492.36; total assessed valuation of all property, $2,203,040.86; true valuation of all property, $3,671,734.77. Total indebtedness of county, township, city and school districts, $354,328.84; per cent. of indebtedness to assessed valuation, 12-.

Newspaper History. - The first paper published in Wyandotte City was the Wyandotte Citizen, by Ephraim Abbott. It was established in 1857, or early in 1858, but was continued only a few months. It was succeeded by the Western Argus, which was printed on the same material, and published by the Western Argus Company, J. E. Bennett, editor, and P. Sidney Post, commercial editor. The first number of the Argus was issued March 25, 1858, and it was continued till March 9, 1861, when the material was sold to R. B. Taylor, on which to print the Wyandotte Gazette.

The Wyandotte Gazette was established August 7, 1858, by S. D. Macdonald, editor and proprietor. Mr. Macdonald continued the publication one year, issuing a daily during the sitting of the Constitutional Convention, and then suspended. In August, 1860, Mr. Macdonald, having associated with himself R. B. Taylor, resumed the publication of the Gazette. This partnership continued but a few weeks, when Mr. Taylor leased the office from Mr. Macdonald and published the paper alone. On the 15th of January, 1861, while the editor was in the East, the office was entirely destroyed by fire. When Mr. Taylor returned he purchased the material of the Argus office, and printed the Gazette on it. He continued the publication of the Gazette till the spring of 1867, when Philpott & Brown got possession of the office, printing the paper for about three months, but failing to comply with the terms of sale, Mr. Taylor resumed control of the establishment, and published the paper till October 1, 1869, when he leased the office to Kessler & Tuttle. On the 1st of January, 1870, Mr. Tuttle withdrew, leaving Mr. Kessler sole lessee and editor, under whose management it remained till July 1, 1870, when Mr. Taylor again assumed control, and continued the publication of the paper till his death, March 26, 1877, since which time, his son, W. B. Taylor, has conducted the paper. The Gazette has always been Republican in politics.

The Wyandotte Reporter was started by M. W. Delahay in the spring of 1857. The material was sold to S. D. Macdonald the same year.

In April, 1857, the publication of the Quindaro Chindowan, a Free-State paper, was commenced by Babb & Walden. The paper was published by them a year, when it was suspended. It was afterwards revived and published by the Quindaro Board of Trade, of which Alfred Gray was President.

The Wyandotte Democrat was published about a year and a half, commencing in May, 1857, by J. A. Berry. Its name was indicative of its politics. The material was removed to Pleasanton, Linn county.

The Kansas Tribune was established at Quindaro in the fall of 1859, by Francis & Davis. It was printed on the material previously used for the Chindowan. In about three months Mr. Davis retired, and Mr. Francis continued the publication till the spring of 1861, when he removed the office to Olathe.

The Kansas Post, a German weekly paper, was removed to Wyandotte, from Kansas City, in the early part of the war and published for one year, by A. Wuerz and John Haberlein. It was again moved to Kansas City.

The first number of Die Fackel (The Torch), was printed in Wyandotte, September 12, 1866, by Kastor, Ficher & Co., H. W. Kastor, editor. On the 1st of January, 1868, the paper was removed to Atchison.

The Kansas Real Estate Herald was issued at Wyandotte, by E. F. Heisler, from November, 1868, to July, 1869.

The Kansas Pilot was established at Kansas City, Kansas, May 1, 1878, by William Caffrey, editor and proprietor. It is a weekly, and Republican in politics.

The Wyandotte Herald was established by V. J. Lane, on the 4th of January, 1872. It is a Democratic paper, and its publication is still continued by the original proprietor.

Schools. - Number of organized districts, 39; school population, 5,235; average salary of teachers, per month, males, $46.33; females, $31.67. School houses built during 1878, none. Total number of school houses, 44; log, 1; frame, 31; brick, 7; stone, 5. Value of all school property, $85,733. The principal district school grounds are enclosed and ornamented with a variety of young shade trees, mostly silver maple.

Churches. - Baptist: organizations, 6; membership, 200; church edifices, 1; value of church property, $1,500. Congregational: organizations, 5; membership, 136; church edifices, 1; value of church property, $3,500. Episcopal: organizations, 1; membership, 16; church edifices, 1; value of church property, $3,000. *Methodist Episcopal: organizations, 6; membership, 150; church edifices, 1; value of church property, $5,000. Presbyterian: organizations, 1; membership, 15. Roman Catholic organizations, 3; membership, 2,000; church edifices, 2; value of church property, $10,000.

* Return for 1876. No returns for 1878.