Transcribed from E.F. Hollibaugh's Biographical history of Cloud County, Kansas biographies of representative citizens. Illustrated with portraits of prominent people, cuts of homes, stock, etc. [n.p., 1903] 919p. illus., ports. 28 cm. Scanned from a copy held by the State Library of Kansas.
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The Expositor made its, appearance August 15, 1875, edited by J.S. Paradis. In politics it was independent, principally devoted to news, local and personal, "Independent in everything. neutral in nothing," its columns were open to both sides of every question of public interest, its motto "Equal rights and justice to all." For six years the Expositor was one of the leading journals of Cloud county. Its editor, J.S. Paradis, was identified with the history of Cloud county, and participated in the building up of all its best interests and shared its prosperity.

September 1, 1881, the Expositor passed into the hands of W.E. Reid and was merged with another paper called the Times - which was started by W.E. Reid - into the Republican Empire.

Mr. Reid was a man of ability, energy and grit, and under his management the paper prospered. It was subsequently controlled for a short time by Charles W. McDonald, and afterward sold to F.W. Sawhill, the present postoffice incumbent. Subsequently the paper was published by W.W. Dunning as a Democratic paper. It changed its politics when purchased by Edward Marshall.

The journal known as the Day Light was later combined with the Empire and conducted by Sawhill & Marshall. The combination was afterward severed and for many years the Empire was one of the leading papers of Concordia, controlled by Sawhill & Kimball.


J.M. Hagaman, one of the most energetic and conscientious men, and who deserves more credit than he is given, was the founder of the Concordia Blade in 1879. When politicians or others attacked him, they found him supplied with ammunition, little guns, big guns, in fact a whole battery to urge a relentless warfare. He worked in the interests of the Democratic party.

The election of county treasurer was the most exciting, bitter and memorable in the history of Cloud county, and was a surprise to both combatants, resulting in a landslide for H.M. Spalding, his opponent being buried by a veritable avalanche of votes. The Republicans had had everything their own way up to this time. The few Democrats hardly dared to hold a meeting because of the bitter prejudice against them.

Because of the unpopularity of Democrats, the bringing of one out for this office against a candidate for the Republican boss was looked upon as a huge joke by many of that party, but before the canvass had gone far they realized they were facing a very serious situation.

W.G. Reid, the present register of deeds, was a candidate for treasurer named by the Republican party. His brother, W.E. Reid, had held the office for four consecutive years, the limit of the law, Walter G. Reid had been his deputy and now it was proposed they reverse places.

The Blade, although a Republican paper, bolted the nomination of Mr. Reid, led the fight and he was defeated by a majority of six hundred and eighty-five, by the Democrats. The Empire also bolted and worked for H.M. Spalding, as did James Strain, F.W. Sturges and many other leading Republicans.

The Blade was the first paper run by steam power in Concordia. The paper still exists and is ably managed by George Burroughs and George A. Clark, secretary of state. A daily Blade is also run in connection with the weekly paper.


The Kansan was originally the Kritic and founded by Thomas Owens, Jr., now of Topeka. Ferd Prince, of Glasco, became associated with this enterprise and the name was changed to Alliant. The paper was subsequently purchased by Homer Davies in November, 1896, and the name of Kansan was adopted, having purchased that right from the Jamestown paper, now the Kansas Optimist. This paper under Mr. Davies' management has become one of the foremost papers of the county.

In 1895 J. Austin Marshall moved his local paper from Miltonvale and published it in Concordia under the name of the Press. After several changes the Press was enlarged to a six column quarto and is edited by Phil Moore, of Roswell, New Mexico. Under his management the paper has become one of the most vigorous and brightest in the country.


In March, 1884, the Times, published by Charles J. English and "Ben" Sheafor, was started. They conducted this paper for one year and sold to Glen F. Chase, who, after a lapse of twelve months, sold to F.A. and F.M. Filson. The Times was distcontinued[sic] in 1891.


In March, 1887, the Daily Blade was started by J.M. and J.E. Hagaman. It was Republican in politics, was a financial failure and suspended November 1, 1888. The Daily Blade was a seven column folio and every number contained six columns of the latest foreign news, twelve columns of miscellaneous matter and from four to six of local matter.


Republican Valley Empire, Clyde and Concordia, 1870-72; Concordia Empire, Concordia, 1876-83; The Republican Empire, Concordia, 1883-87; Concordia Empire, Concordia, 1887-1902; Concordia Blade and Empire, Concordia, 1902, continues; The Concordia Republican, Concordia, 1882-83; The Concordia Expositor, Concordia, 1875-81; The Cloud County Blade, Concordia, 1879-82; Kansas Blade, 1882-98; Concordia Daily Blade (suspended from February 5, 1885, until March, 1887), 1884-88; Daily Blade, Concordia, 1902, continues; Cloud County Critic (Kansas Critic in 1888), Concordia, 1882-88; The Concordia Times, Concordia, 1884-91; Concordia Democrat and Daylight, Concordia, 1886; The Concordia Weekly Daylight, Concordia, 1886-98; The Alliant, Concordia, 1890-95; The District School (monthly), Concordia, 1893-95; The Kansan, Concordia, 1895, continues; The Concordia Press, Concordia, 1893, continues; The Clyde Herald, Clyde (not issued from December to February 3, 1880, 1878, continues; Clyde Democrat, Clyde, 1880-82; Cline's Press, Clyde, 1884; The Clyde Mail, Clyde, 1884-87; The Clyde Argus, Clyde, 1888-96; The Farmers Voice, Clyde, 1891, continues; The Clyde Republican, Clyde, continues; The Kansas Sunflower, Clyde, 1894-95; Glasco Tribune, Clyde, 1881-82; The Glasco Sun, Clyde, 1883, continues; The New Era, Clyde, 1890-93; Cloud County Kansan, Jamestown, 1881-95; The Quill, Jamestown, 1888-90; The Kansas Optimist, Jamestown, 1895, continues; The Miltonvale News, Miltonvale, 1882-91; Miltonvale Chieftain, Miltonvale, 1887-88; Miltonvale Press, Miltonvale, 1892-93; Miltonvale Tribune, Miltonvale, 1894; The Miltonvale Press, Miltonvale, 1896-98; Miltonvale Record, Miltonvale, 1901, continues; Ames Advance, Ames, 1885-86; The Ames Bureau, Ames, 1887; Come and See (a monthly conference reporter), Ames, 1895-98; Aurora News, Aurora, 1892-93.

There were several other papers, though of short duration, viz:

The Glasco Banner, edited by V.C. Post from February 25, to July 10, 1880; Miltonvale Star, established by Robb & Phelps, and published from April 14, to August 26, 1886; The Reformer was published in Concordia from September 15 to November 2, 1886; The Weekly Courier was published at Ames from March 23 to June 29, 1888; The Miltonvale Review, from July 25 to November 14, 1889; The Advance was published in Miltonvale from January 15 to April 6, 1892; The Reporter was issued there from February 25 to March 17, 1892; The Miltonvale Echo from July 26, 1892, to January 6, 1893; The Clyde Star was published in Clyde from March 14, to April 25, 1884; The Daily Reporter was published in Concordia from August 8, to September 3, 1887; The Western Rustler, a monthly paper, was issued in Clyde during the months of January and February, 1889; The Miltonvale Leader, August 31, 1893, to January 4, 1894; The District School (monthly) was edited in Aurora from December, 1893, to March, 1894; The Daily Daylight was published in Concordia from May 9 to August 21, 1895; The Cash Merchant (semi-monthly) was published in Glasco, May 1 to October 15, 1897; Gospel Leaves was edited in Jamestown by James H. Lathrop from October, 1880, to March, 1881.


January 16, 1877, the Central Branch Railroad reached Concordia. As strong evidence of the great need of the railroad, the following facts are given: One thousand one hundred car loads of freight were hauled from this town alone, the first thirty days after the road reached the city. There was also long trains of merchandise brought in.

March 5, 1878, Concordia was brought into closer connection with the outside world by the operating of the telegraph line which was attached to the batteries on that fay. Concordia is the natural center of a large tributary of rich farming lands, and like the old saying "all roads lead to Rome," this city being a railroad center, all roads lead to Concordia.

The land office and the water power afforded by the Republican river was the nucleus that drew the town site and county seat to Concordia. The bringing of the land office in 1870, gave the town an impetus and she began to take on a vigorous growth, since which time it has been rapid and substantial until now it can boast of being one of the most beautiful and prosperous cities in northwest Kansas with a population of five thousand people.


Estimating the distance in an air line, Concordia is said to be situated one hundred and eleven miles in a northwesterly direction from Topeka, the capital of the state. It is charmingly located on the south side of the Republican river, and is the seat of Cloud county. These important features, along with her railroad facilities, natural resources and developments, render this metropolis a conspicuous figure in the northwestern portion of the state.


Concordia is the center of a large and rich area of agricultural country and the products that thrive in this fertile region find an excellent market there, which add in turn to the commercial supremacy, for Concordia is the radiating point, the trade center of a large population of country. The business blocks excel in character those usually found in cities of this size, most of them being substantial structures of brick or stone, two and three stories in height and particularly uniform in proportions. Many of the stores are handsomely appointed, as the various illustrations of interiors show, and present a metropolitan appearance, giving evidence of the extended business they transact.


There are two excellent hostelries, the long popular "Barons House," which is now owned and managed by C.H. Martin, an experienced caterer having been engaged in the hotel business for many years. Since Mr. Martin opened the house in June, 1902, he has remodeled and made many improvements, which render comfortable and excellent accommodations to the traveling public. There are several smaller hotels where lower rates are given, but comfortable quarters insured, "The Caldwell" is under course of completion and will be one of the most elegantly equipped hotels in the West.

Many of the industries of this city are given space and appear under their own headlines.

There are many legal lights in Concordia, and although a peaceful city, situated in the midst of a law abiding population, they all thrive.

The medical profession is numerously represented and by some of the most able physicians in northwestern Kansas.

Concordia has an unsurpassed high water pressure of the stand-pipe system. The water is absolutely pure, being forced into the great pipe, which is located on one of the hills on the southwest side of the city, from wells of living water. This perfect water system is also a great safeguard against conflagrations. In connection with this must be noted the well equipped fire department.

From the hook and ladder company, instituted February 18, 1876, with fourteen members, and D.W. Williams, captain, and shortly afterward organized with thirty members and adopted uniforms, the present efficient fire department has grown.

Concordia's new sewer system, completed in 1902, at a cost of twelve thousand eight hundred and ninety-one dollars and thirty-three cents, is a credit to the town and from its excellent sanitary conditions, and its fine water supply, the people of this city enjoy the greatest measure of health.

The editorial staff of three papers, while at some variance politically and otherwise, are a unit as respects the advancement of Concordia's material interests. A well organized commercial club, made up of the most wide-awake and enterprising citizens, contributes much to the prosperity and advancement of the city.

A few blocks removed from the business houses are handsome residences and artistic cottages, whose beauty are greatly enhanced by a luxuriant growth of magnificent shade trees. These are found in all parts of the city, making it exceedingly pleasant in summer. The public buildings are stately edifices of modern architecture. The streets are not paved, a much needed factor which is being agitated by the city fathers, but the walks are admirably kept and in extent foot up a total of many miles. Few cities of the size of Concordia can boast of an electric light system giving more satisfactory service.


Concordia being a radiating center, many commercial travelers have joined its residents in citizenship, something like seventy-five of them residing there. Many have families and own their comfortable homes. No more enterprising citizens can be found, or who more generously subscribe to enterprises promoted for the general welfare, or for the growth of their adopted town.

They are a jolly lot; extended travel and bumping up against the world, as it were, gives them an insight into human nature, broadens their views and renders them exceedingly companionable fellows, who draw to themselves a crowd in the corridors of the hotel or wherever they may have convened to distribute their stores of well chosen "yarns." They are almost invariably genial, full of humor and wit, their narratives ever appropriate and entertaining, never minus bright points. Several of them have holdings in various business interests in Concordia, some of whom have renounced the road entirely and become permanent dwellers in the city.

Scores of these "commercial tourists" leave Concordia every Monday morning to visit the trade they have established, covering a territory of many miles north, south, east and west, and on the return trip again "Sunday" in Concordia, the center of gravitation.

All the secret, social and benevolent orders are represented in Concordia. St, John's Lodge No. 113, A.F.&.A.M., was organized in 1872. There is a Blue Lodge and Chapter of Masons. The Concordia Commandery is in the lead in conferring the Order of the Temple. In the two last reports of the grand reporter they were placed at the head of the list and won laurels over all in the state. An encampment of Odd Fellows was instituted in 1873, and is known as Concordia Lodge No. 92. The United Commercial Travelers have a strong organization here. Many of the societies have elegant quarters. Especially is this true of the Benevolent Order of Elks. They maintain handsomely equipped, commodious and well ventilated rooms, where for the time being the man of affairs can enjoy an evening of recreation and business cares are forgotten.


The river before
changing its course.
The river before changing its course.

During the high water of July, 1902, the Republican river changed its channel. Leaving the city, it turned its course about one mile further to the northward, joining the old course about one and a half miles to the northeast. Its waywardness was the practical ruin of several fine farms; also leaving the Concordia electric light plant and the Concordia mills without the water power by which they were largely operated. This was a serious damage to the city, while it is a heavy expense to the county as well, necessitating the building of a new bridge. Various projects are being considered, among them the cutting of a new channel through the neck of land where the river makes the farthest point south.

'Champion' Day In Concordia.
The city of Concordia is located on rolling ground and has fine natural drainage. The town extends from the river well into the hills north and eastward. "Zion Hill," which lies directly west of the city, derives its origin from the numerous divines who at one time resided in that part of the city. "Nobs Hill" lies west and south of the Washington school building and was appropriately given its suggestive name because of the aristocracy of that locality. "Jail Hill" lies to the southeast of the city. Here is located the county jail; hence the name. The building is a substantial structure, located on the summit of the hill, and to the prisoner who is so unfortunate as to need be incarcerated there is no escape until his freedom at the hands of the official who holds the keys that will move from their fastenings the ponderous doors.

Concordia is not a boom town, but enjoys a steady and substantial growth. There are no empty buildings, residences or otherwise, and the citizens are all alive to the best interests of their beautiful city. The moral and social atmosphere compares favorably with any town of its size. While the religious side is looked to, social pleasures are also encouraged, and many functions are held, which are elaborate in detail and distinguished for their modern appointments.

In noting the various enterprises which follow, the author has no special interest, further than to give credit where it is merited, and they are published solely in the interests of the subscribers to the History of Cloud County.


One of America's many, many institutions is her magnificent public school system and nowhere on the continent is this exemplified to a greater degree than in the fair state of Kansas. It is one of the principal elements of her greatness, and nowhere, perhaps, in the state are the educational facilities of the public schools of Concordia surpassed. From the modest little school house erected soon after the birth of Concordia, in 1870, modern structures valued at seventy-five thousand dollars have been erected.

The Washington School.
The Lincoln School.

The Washington school was built in 1883; the first of the four buildings that comprise the city's present schools. It is a fine brick building with eight rooms, a library and recitation rooms. The Lincoln is a four-room brick, erected in 1886. The same year the Garfield school, a two-roomed building, was located in the north part, of the city. The High school, which is situated on the corner of Washington and Seventh streets, was erected in 1900. This is a handsome building of substantial architecture, and is the pride of Concordia. It is constructed with an auditorium that has a seating capacity of two hundred and seventy-five, four large recitation rooms, principal's room and superintendent's, office. A well equipped gymnasium and a fine laboratory have been introduced.

The Garfield School.
The High School.
The school library consists of one thousand six hundred volumes, rich in historical and biographical works, besides a splendid reference library. Opportunity is afforded the student to exercise his mind to the utmost during the four years high school course, and those whose scholastic career ends there, are fitted for mental growth and development in after life. A total of seventeen teachers are employed, three of that number in the High school. Miss Ida R. Wilcox, one of the best known educators in the county, and a daughter of Rosetta Honey Wilcox, who taught the first school in the county, is principal and has filled that position for seven years, her work in the meantime being of a high character.

A.B. Carney has been associated with the Concordia schools for ten successive years. The discipline with which he conducted the first two years of his work is demonstrated by his promotion to a position of greater responsibility, which he has ably discharged and won recognized honor in the eight years his services have been retained as superintendent. Of the eight hundred and seventy pupils enrolled, one hundred of them are High school students. The average daily attendance is upwards of seven hundred. The citizens of Concordia have shown all appreciation of the progress made in the public schools and have reason to feel especially proud. For years the school board has been selected from the most progressive citizens of the city, who have lightened the burden very materially by vieing with their predecessors in thoroughly equipping the buildings with necessary apparatus and employing the most efficient instructors at good salaries. The average in grades is forty-five dollars per month. The High school principal receives seventy-five dollars per month, and the superintendent twelve hundred dollars per year. Each succeeding year the Concordia public schools have prgressed and the development has been rapid, and the year that has just closed has been no exception to the preceding ones.


In September, 1889, L.H. Hausam organized a business training institution In the city of Concordia, Kansas, known as the Great Western Business College. Mr. Hausam, the founder and president of the college, was a man of experience in educational work, having been connected with commercial and normal school interests for a period of fifteen years, when entering upon the field at Concordia. He has the reputation of being one of the best known and experienced penmen in the entire country, and is the founder of the Kansas State Penman Association, the only one of its kind in the United States, and is the author of The New Educator of Penmanship, the highest endorsed work of its kind ever published. Several of his pupils became very proficient in this art, being the only students who passed the examination provided by the Kansas State Penmanship Association.

E.N. Hall, a well qualified college bred man, having earned the degree of master of accounts from the Gem City Business College of Quincy, Illinois, was principal of the commercial department.

W.J. Williams, a graduate from the Omaha Commercial College, was principal of the typewriting department. He was capable and enthusiastic, and produced some good results. Mr. O.F. Bearnes, principal of the shorthand department, was not only an experienced and competent instructor, but a cultured man of much value to the students in various ways. Each of the departments was well equipped, and every practical means used to make the Great Western Business College a successful institution, and while the enrollment never reached its present proportion, good results were obtained, and the college became favorably known.

In June, 1902, Professor W.T. Larimore, one of the most enthusiastic and zealous educational workers in the west, assumed ownership, and became president of the Great Western Business & Normal College. Under his management the school has made wonderfully rapid strides, and is destined to become one of the foremost colleges in the state. Its reputation for thoroughness is being widely established and the college quarters are crowded to their utmost capacity with bright young men and women from various parts of the country, who, as soon as they are competent, are placed in positions that command a lucrative salary, proportionate with the ability of the aspirant. This college offers advantages to the student who is desirous of qualifying for a position of trust and responsibility, or to the young man or woman who expect to manage their own affairs, as a thorough business training is valuable to all classes of people.

Professor Larimore is not only one of the most energetic and tireless workers, but one of the most competent instructors in the state, being master of three different systems in shorthand, presenting them all in a clear, attractive and comprehensive manner

Each student entering for the shorthand or business course receives instructions in the following subjects: Plain penmanship, pronunciation, business forms, lecturing, business practice, commercial law, spelling, letter writing, bookkeeping, debating, office training, arithmetic, civil government, constitution and grammar. These classes are all conducted under the most modern and approved methods, and the courses of study complete.

The typewriting department has all the latest improvements and each desk is furnished with a machine, the key of which is given to the student, that he may use the typewriter whenever he desires. The elegant desks containing the machines are regular eight drawer, roller top office desks. The equipment of the Great Western Business college is one of the finest in the entire country. Solid oak individual desks, solid oak spring and screw office chairs, for students In the commercial department, solid oak typewriter desks in typewriting department. The chairs of all the departments are of oak, with solid oak table chairs for the lecture room. There are carpets on the aisles and halls throughout the building. Many feet of fine blackboard is provided; also a beautiful bank counter that students may be given the practical experience so essential before entering upon office duty. The two office rooms are admirably fitted with library chairs and tables, Davenport couch, roller-top office desks and the floor is covered with Brussels carpet. The building is steam heated, lighted by electricity, and, although crowded with students, is well ventilated, clean and healthful.

The normal department, intended for those who wish to teach school, or pursue a thorough course in the English branches, is so arranged that the best possible results are attained within the period of attendance. The elocution department is of a high character and the advantages offered in this school are unsurpassed in the state. The instructor in the telegraphy department, Professor J.P. Tyler, has had years of practical experience.

The Great Western Business and Normal College has made every effort to secure the best talent in the music department, and are prepared to offer the best advantages to the students interested in music. They make a specialty of piano, string and band instruments of all kinds, and of voice culture. A college orchestra and a college band are among the leading and pleasing features of the school.